Components of the diet

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  • Components of the diet
    • Protein
      • Protein is for growth. repair and energy. it is the only nutrient that contains nitrogen needed for growth.
      • HBV-High biological value
      • LBV-Low biological value
      • Non-essential Amino acids  are made by our bodies, we do not need to obtain them from food sources e.g. insulin
      • Essential amino acids are not made by our bodies, we need to obtain them from food sources.
      • Adults require 8 essential amino acids, a few are Leucine and isoleucine
      • Complementary proteins is when you mix LBVs together to have all the essential amino acids like a HBV.
      • Children require 10 amino acids such as histidine and Lysine.
    • Fats
      • Fats are known as triglycerides
      • 9 cals= 1g fat which means that fat is a concentrated source of energy
      • Fat surrounds and protects certain vital organs
      • Fat forms part of the structure of cell membranes and it is a source of fat soluble vitamins- VitaminA,D,E,K.
      • Saturated fats- monounsaturated (MFA)
      • Unsaturated fats-polyunsaturated (PFA)
      • Essential fatty acids are known as vitaminF such as Linolenic, oleic.
      • Oils and fats are liable to spoilage- they go rancid.
    • Metabolism
      • The rate of which the body uses up energy
    • Carbohydrates and NSP
      • NSP- Non-starch polysaccharides
        • Non starch polysaccharides commonly known as fibre. Helps preventdiverticular diseaseand bowel cancer and helps clear the digestive system.
      • Monosaccharides are known as simple sugars,they are soluble in water and vary in sweetness e.g. Sucrose, fructose, glucose
      • Monosaccharides are instantly reabosrbed back into the bloddstream. they are good for quick energy
      • Disaccharides are known as double sugars,which are composed of 2 monosaccharide units joined together e.g. lactose, maltose and sucrose
      • During digestion disaccharides are broken down to glucose and other monosaccharides before being absorbed into the bloodstream.
      • Polysaccharides are formed from a varying number of monosaccharide units. e.g. starch, dextrin,glycogen, pectin.
    • Vitamins
      • VitaminA
        • Known as Retinol and Carotene
        • Retinol is found in liver, eggs, butter
        • Carotene is found in yellow and orange fruits and vegetables e.g. Tomatoes, mangoes and carrots
        • It helps bone to grow and aids night vision. A deficiency could lead to dry skin and slow growth
      • VitaminD
        • Known as Calciferol, ergocalciferol or cholecaliferol
        • Found in food in fatty fish and eggs. it is also fortifiedin margarine. It also comes from sunlight
        • It aids absorption of calciumin the small intestine. A deficiency can cause rickets
      • VitaminE
        • Known as Tocopherol
        • Found in Vegetable oils, nuts, seeds and egg yolk
        • It keeps lungs and red cells healthyand could prevent certain cnacers
      • VitaminC
        • Known as Ascorbic acid
        • Found in Citrus fruits, strawberries, green vegetables.
        • It helps absorb calciumand irn and protects against infection. A deficiency can cause slow healing woundsand scurvy.
      • VitaminB
        • Known as Thiamin, niacin, riboflavin and folic acid
        • Found in cereals, yeast, edds, meat and fish
        • It releases energy.A deficieny could cause anaemia, spinabifida, loss of appetite, beri-beri.
      • VitaminK
        • Found in liver, leafy green vegetables
        • Essential to aid blood clottingand it regualtes quantitiy of calciumin blood. A deficiency could cause internalbleeding and anaemia.
    • Minerals
      • Calcium
        • Found in milk and cheese, bread and bones of cannedfish.
        • It strengthens bones and teeth and helps to blood clot after injury.
        • Lack of calciumcan cause osteoporosis
      • Iron
        • Found in the liver, kidney,cocoa, plain chocolate, fried fruit and pulses
        • It helps transport oxygento all parts of the body. It is an important part of haemoglobin. A deficiency can cause anaemia.
      • Iodine
        • Found in seafood, seaweed, milk, meat and eggs
        • It is needed for the development of the nervous system of a foetus. It also maintains metabolism and connective tissue.
        • A deficiency can cause goitre

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