Key words

  • Created by: Rosie
  • Created on: 17-03-13 19:44
An aldehyde formed when glycerol is heated to a high temperature; responsible for the acrid odour produced when fats are overheated.
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A natural or synthetic substance which is added to food for a specific purpose.
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Ambient temperture
Normal room temperature
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Amino Acid
The basic units from which proteins are made. Eight amino acids cannot be synthesised by the body and must be provided in the diet; they are called essential amino acids.
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Enzymes that break down starch.
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A type of starch that forms stable gels which are resistant to retrogradation.
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A form of starch that gelatinises easily but after time retrogradation occurs – the gel shrinks and releases liquid – (syneresis).
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A condition caused by a lack of haemoglobin in the blood; caused by a deficiency of iron in the diet.
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Anti-caking agent
compounds added to powdered, dry foods to prevent clumping or caking.
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A substance which prevents oxidative rancidity of fats in foods.
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Ascorbic acid
Vitamin C; a water soluble compound.
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single celled organisms present in air, soil, animal and the human body.
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Balanced diet
A diet which provides adequate amounts of nutrients and energy.
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Basal metabolism
The energy needed to maintain the body when at rest. Experimentally it is measured as the heat output from the body or the rate of oxygen consumption under controlled conditions.
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Beri Beri
A deficiency of thiamine (vitamin B1) in the diet.
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A vitamin (B) which is essential for the metabolism of fat.
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Biuret test
A chemical test for protein.
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Literally whitening; Partial pre cooking, by immersing foods in boiling water. Fruits and vegetables are blanched (before being preserved) for a variety of reasons including the destruction of enzymes which cause spoilage
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Blast Freezing
Quick freezing – small ice crystals form and there is less damage to the food than in slow freezing.
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Blood sugar
Glucose – the form of carbohydrate used by the body for energy.
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Body Mass Index
A measurement of obesity.
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A type of bacterial food poisoning
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Bratt Pan
A large shallow tilting pan which is controlled by a thermostat and used in commercial food preparation for frying, boiling, poaching and stewing.
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Enzymes present in pineapple, papaya and figs which hydrolyse proteins. It can be used to tenderise meat
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A mineral element which is essential for strong bones and teeth. Absorption in the body is dependent on the presence of vitamin D and phosphorus.
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A unit of energy which is used to give the energy yield of foods and the energy expenditure by the body.
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A type of bacterial food poisoning
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A method of preserving food by sterilization and cooking in a sealed metal container.
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A process which occurs when sucrose is heated and changes in colour from white to brown.
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The major source of energy for the body
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A substance that can cause cancer.
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Red or orange pigment found in fruits and vegetables. A source of vitamin A. Carotene is converted to retinol in the intestine.
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Protein found in milk.
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Polysaccharide formed by plants from glucose units joined together to produce strong structural material. It cannot be digested in the human body but provides an important source of dietary fibre (NSP).
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The seeds of cultivated grasses used as food. They provide the most important source of food in the diet.
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See vitamin D.
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The green pigment in leafy vegetables and unripe fruit which is responsible for trapping the light energy used in photosynthesis.
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A substance produced in the liver and carried in the blood by two proteins – low and high density lipoprotein. Low density lipoprotein can increase to a high level in the blood; it is deposited in the walls of blood vessels and causes a narrowing of
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A form of bacterial food poisoning
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A process which involves the denaturation of proteins; changing from a soluble to an insoluble structure.
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Celiac disease
Caused by an intolerance of the protein gluten present in the cereals wheat, barley and rye.
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The insoluble protein component in connective tissue, tendons bones and skin of animals and fish. It is converted to the soluble protein substance gelatine in the presence of moist heat and therefore increases the tenderness of meat.
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Complex carbohydrate
Both starch and non starch polysaccharides
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A method of food preparation in which the food is cooked then rapidly chilled and stored below 5c thus increasing the keeping quality of the product for a short time.
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Critical Control Point ( CCP)
A point in the production process that is essential for safety.
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A method of preserving meat and fish by treating with sodium nitrite or nitrate and sodium chloride
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Cryogenic Freezing
A method of freezing food rapidly by immersing it in liquid nitrogen
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Danger Zone
The temperature range in which bacteria grow.
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Vitamin D
Essential for the formation of bones and teeth. Vitamin D aids the absorption of calcium and phosphorus. It is produced in the body when it is exposed to sun light; dehydrocholesterol is converted to cholecalciferol which is stored in the liver .It i
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Date Marking
Of manufactured foods. Best before is the date up until the food will remain in peak condition. Perishable foods have a Use By date up to which the food can be kept if stored appropriately.
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An alteration in the structure of protein caused by heat, acid alkali or mechanical action. It is an irreversible process.
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Soluble compounds formed by the breakdown of starch by heat, enzymes or acids.
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are formed in the presence of dry heat when bread is toasted.
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Pure glucose.
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A metabolic disorder caused by the poor absorption of glucose; this can be due to the failure to produce insulin (in insulin dependent diabetes) or the poor response of tissues to insulin (in non insulin dependent diabetes) Type1 diabetes mellitius d
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Dietary fibre
Material, mostly from plants, which is not digested by humans but which absorbs water and binds other residues in the intestine thus aiding the excretion of waste material from the body.
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Dietary guidelines
Advice from the Government on recommended food intake in order to achieve dietary goals.
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Dietary reference values
A set of standards of the intakes for most nutrients needed for good health
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Diverticular disease
A disease caused by a lack of fibre in the diet.
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Method of preserving food by removing most of the water.
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Values calculated for energy requirements of groups of people. They represent the needs of most people in a particular group.
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E numbers
A form of code of permitted additives produced by the EU.
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Emulsifying agents
Substances which enable water and oil to be uniformly dispersed.
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A mixture of two immiscible liquids.
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The large interior section of cereal grains which provide starch, B vitamins and some protein
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Energy requirements
These are calculated from the basal metabolic rate and the energy expenditure.
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Escheria Coli
A type of bacterial food poisoning which can be fatal
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A protein substance which catalyses a metabolic reaction.
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Chemical breakdown of sugars by the action of yeast or bacteria.
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Indigestible parts of food – usually cellulose, which remains in the intestine after digestion
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Fish Oils
These contain long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids which are thought to lower blood cholesterol and to help to prevent heart disease. They contain the fat soluble vitamins A and D.
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Flavour enhancers
Tasteless substances used to enhance the taste of savoury foods.
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Flour enrichment
the addition of vitamin B, calcium and iron to flour in the UK.
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Flour-high ratio
Flour which has been treated with chlorine to reduce the strength of the gluten
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A mineral that occurs in the form of fluorides (salts). It is generally thought to protect teeth and gums against decay especially in young children.
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Formed when gas is mixed into a liquid ( e.g. air whisked into egg white creates a foam )..
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Folic acid
A B vitamin essential for cell division. Deficiency can cause megoblastic anaemia. It is believed to reduce the incidence of spina bifida in babies. Sources include liver, kidney, green leafy vegetables and yeast.
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Food Spoilage
Caused by the natural decay of food or by contamination by micro organisms.
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The addition of nutrients to manufactured foods to provide an increased intake and replace nutrients lost during processing.
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Freeze drying
A method of preservation involving freezing food in a vacuum. Flavour and texture are retained
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Fruit sugar; a monosaccharide.
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a gel is formed when a large amount of liquid is set by a small amount of solid, e.g. jam.
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A soluble protein of low biological value produced by boiling collagen and bones. It is used as a setting agent and is used in the manufacture of jelly, canned meat and confectionery.
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A process that occurs when starch is mixed with a liquid and heated; the starch thickens the liquid.
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Germ, wheat
The embryo of the grain containing protein, fat, iron and vitamins B and E.
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A monosaccharide; the form of carbohydrate used by the body for energy. All other carbohydrates are converted into glucose during digestion.
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A mixture of the proteins glutenin and gliadin which provide structure and hold gas during the rising of bread.
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Carbohydrate stored in the liver and muscles.
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Substances used in food manufacture to stabilize emulsions.
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Iron containing pigment and constituent of haemoglobin and myoglobin.
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The iron containing protein in red blood cells which transports oxygen and carbon dioxide in the bloodstream
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food which is selected and prepared according to Islamic dietary law.
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A process where pasteurised milk is passed through fine sieves to break the fat globules into fine droplets which are dispersed throughout the milk.
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Substances which inhibit the loss of moisture from manufactured baked products. Also prevent crystallization of sugar in confectionery and growth of ice crystals in frozen foods.
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The conversion of oils to solid fats by the addition of hydrogen to the unsaturated double bonds.
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A hormone which controls the metabolism of carbohydrates
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Invert Sugar
Produced by the hydrolysis of sucrose. Used in the manufacture of sweets as it prevents the crystallization of sucrose.
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A process used to reduce spoilage in some foods.
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A mineral present in the blood and stored in the liver .Absorption of non haem iron is aided by vitamin C. Absorption of iron is reduced by the presence of phytatic acid and phosphate. Prolonged lack of iron leads to anaemia.
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A unit of energy. Used to show the energy content of foods and energy expenditure.
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The amount of heat energy that is needed to raise the temperature of 1 kilogram of water by 1°C.
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Food which is selected and prepared in accordance with Jewish dietary law.
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Protein energy malnutrition
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A protein present in milk.
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Lactic Acid
produced by the fermentation of carbohydrate anaerobically and responsible for the flavour of fermented milk products. Used in manufactured confectionery, sauces, pickles and drinks
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A disaccharide formed from one unit of glucose and one unit of galactose. Found in the milk of mammals.
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Saturated animal fat produced from pigs
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Present in egg yolk and soya and used as an emulsifier in manufactured foods.
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Linoleic Acid
A polyunsaturated fatty acid present in vegetable oils.
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An enzyme which breaks down fat.
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A general term used to describe fats oils and waxes
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A type of bacterial food poisoning
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Maillard Reaction
non enzymic browning reaction which occurs as a result of heating during cooking and processing but also occurs in some stored products such as dried milk.
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Malt sugar. A disaccharide formed from two units of glucose joined together
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A condition caused by an unbalanced nutrient intake
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A fat (originally produced as a substitute for butter) which is an emulsion of fat and water which contains vitamins A and D, colourings, flavourings and preservatives.
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Meat Extenders
Textured vegetable protein added to meat products in place of some of the meat
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Complex chemical reactions which enable the body to grow and function and to replace body cells.
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A brown pigment found in meat when it has been stored for several days
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Vitamins and minerals which are needed in small quantities for health.
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Micro Organisms
bacteria, yeasts and moulds which cause food spoilage.
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Substances used by the body to control processes; they form an essential part of body fluids
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Modified Atmosphere Packaging
Packaging used for fish, fruit, vegetables etc. The packs are gas flashed to reduce the amount of oxygen and replace it with carbon dioxide or nitrogen.
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Simple sugars; the common base units from which other carbohydrates are formed.
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Monosodium Glutamate (MSG)
A flavour enhancer found in soy sauce. It brings out the flavour of savoury foods and is added to a number of savoury processed foods.
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Minute plants which grow on foods such as bread, cheese and fruit
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A deep red tissue pigment that is responsible for the colour of meat. It holds oxygen in the muscles and enables them to function
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Toxins produced by moulds
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(Nicotinic acid) A water soluble B vitamin which is concerned with the release of energy from carbohydrate by oxidation. A daily supply is needed. Sources include meat, cereal, yeast and liver. It is added to flour
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Novel foods
Ingredients and foods which contain chemical substances which have not previously been used in foods. Also ingredients or foods which have undergone a process which has not previously been sold and which causes changes which alter its nutritional val
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Non Starch Polysaccharide (Fibre) (NSP)
indigestible part of food; cellulose (the cell wall of plants).
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Nutritional labelling
Governed by law, the information relating to nutrients and energy in the food which must be given on packaging.
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Excessive fatness .Measured as a ratio of weight to height.
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The parts of an animal removed from the carcase in the process of dressing it. Includes liver, heart, kidney brain tongue, pancreas and thymus glands and tripe. Offal provides a good source of iron and vitamins A and D.
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Omega 3
A mixture of triglycerides rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids.
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Organic foods
Plants grown without the use of synthetic pesticides fungicides or organic fertilizers. They must have been prepared without preservatives.
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Sensory qualities (texture, flavour, aroma, sight and touch).
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A disease caused by a lack of vitamin D ( The adult version of rickets).
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Oxalic Acid
A substance present in rhubarb, spinach, chocolate and nuts which is poisonous if consumed in large amounts.
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Oxidative Rancidity
Occurs in unsaturated fats and oils. The reaction is initiated by the presence of some metals, ultra violet light and high temperatures.
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the collective name given to a number of wheat flour products which are cooked by boiling. They are made from dough containing durum wheat.
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The process of prolonging the keeping quality of products such as milk by heating to destroy harmful bacteria.
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Dough made from flour, fat and water.
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Bacteria which cause disease.
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A measure of acidity or alkalinity.
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Capacity of a fat to spread.
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A complex polysaccharide, formed by some plants. It forms gels in water and is used in the setting of jam.
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A disease caused by a deficiency of Niacin.
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An enzyme which hydrolyses protein during digestion.
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Peptide bond
A link between amino acids used in the formation of dipeptides polypeptides and proteins
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A substance present in cereals, some nuts and legumes which can bind calcium iron and zinc into insoluble substances.
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Usually refers to naturally occurring colours: chlorophylls – green. caretonoidsyellow orange and red, anthocyanins (derivatives of benzopyran) – red to blue.
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Long chains of amino acids used to form proteins
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Poly Saccharides
Formed from varying numbers of monosaccharide units. Usually insoluble in cold water
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Term used to describe polyunsaturated fatty acids
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The protection of perishable foods from deterioration by removing the conditions necessary for the growth of micro organisms.
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Substances added to some processed foods to prevent spoilage
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Live micro organisms which are added to foods and thought to restore the microbial balance in the intestine.
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Essential constituents of all cells; composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and sulphur.
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The dried seeds of legumes; peas, beans and lentils. They provide a good source of protein and b vitamins.
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A B complex vitamin: involved in the metabolism of amino acids
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Quality Assurance
Ensuring that products are of good quality
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Quality control
Stages and procedures in processing which ensure that products are safe and of a good quality.
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A product made from mycoprotein (a fungi).Provides a good source of protein.
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A chemical change caused by oxidation or hydrolysis. It causes ‘off’ flavours to develop. Rapid dough processes: Mechanical action and oxidation speed up the traditional method of preparing bread dough; less fermentation takes place. The Chorleywood
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A substance which is extracted from a calf’s stomach and used in the preparation of cheese and junket
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Vitamin A. Main sources are liver, fish liver oils, dairy produce and margarine
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Retrogradation (of starch)
the opposite of gelatinisation. The starch undergoes a colloidal change and contracts due to the loss of water. Stabilizers are used in processed foods to reduce retrogradation
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Vitamin B2. Concerned with the release of energy from carbohydrates
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Dietary fibre
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An artificial intense sweetener
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A type of bacterial food poisoning
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Scaling up
Increasing a recipe for bulk production while keeping the ratio and proportions the same
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Sensory Testing
Tests which are carried out to evaluate the reactions of people to food.
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A method of preserving meat poultry and fish.
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Substances which absorb water and are often used as thickening agents; many can produce gels and also act as emulsifiers
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A polysaccharide composed from units of glucose.
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A method of increasing the keeping quality of products by destroying all micro organisms by heating to a high temperature.
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Sweeteners- bulk
Used to replace sucrose and glucose syrups. Used in the manufacture of soft drinks and sugar confectionery.
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Usually refers to eggs; if overcooked, the proteins shrink as they coagulate and separate from the watery liquid.
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Textured vegetable protein
Usually protein produced from defatted soya beans. It is either extruded or formed into chunks. Used as an alternative protein and as a meat extender.
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Vitamin B1. Sources include eggs, meat, pulses and yeast. A deficiency causes the disease beri-beri.
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Tolerance Levels
The levels within which a process works safely and effectively
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Ultra Heat treatment (UHT)
The high temperature, short time sterilization of milk known as long life milk.
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Ultra Violet Irradation
Used for surface sterilization, for tenderising and ageing meat, curing cheese and preventing the growth of moulds on the surface of baked products
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Those who for a variety of reasons, choose not to eat meat Vegans eat no products of animal origin. Lacto- vegetarians consume milk and milk products. Ovo- lacto vegetarians eat eggs
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The thickness of a liquid or a mixture, such as a sauce
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The coating of fruit and vegetables with an edible wax to prevent loss of moisture, improve appearance and prolong shelf life.
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Xanthan gum
Polysaccharide produced by bacterial fermentation and used as a thickening agent to form gels and increase viscosity.
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Fungi which are involved in fermentation and spoilage of sweetened or salted products. A source of vitamin B and protein
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Produced from milk coagulated with two types of bacteria. May be stirred or set, pasteurised (where most of the bacteria are destroyed) or live. Bio yoghurts also contain bacteria which are thought to enhance the growth of beneficial bacteria in the
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Card 2


A natural or synthetic substance which is added to food for a specific purpose.



Card 3


Normal room temperature


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Card 4


The basic units from which proteins are made. Eight amino acids cannot be synthesised by the body and must be provided in the diet; they are called essential amino acids.


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Card 5


Enzymes that break down starch.


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