Health

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What is health?

Health was defined by the World Health Organisation (WHO) - 1948

'A state of complete physical, social and mental well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity'

Widened its definition in 1986

'Health is therefore seen as a resource for everyday life, not the objective of living. It is a postive concept emphasising social and personal resources as well as physical capabilities.'

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Factors affecting Health

  • Individual factors - Things we cant change, Genetic make-up, gender, age
  • Behaviour and lifestyle factors - Important impact on health and can be modified, Smoking, Drinking alcohol, diet
  • Social networking - Support and care given by friends and family, this influences our behaviour and lifestyle
  • Issues in society - Where we live and work, access to health services, poor housing
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Factors affecting Health

  • Individual factors - Things we cant change, Genetic make-up, gender, age
  • Behaviour and lifestyle factors - Important impact on health and can be modified, Smoking, Drinking alcohol, diet
  • Social networking - Support and care given by friends and family, this influences our behaviour and lifestyle
  • Issues in society - Where we live and work, access to health services, poor housing
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Incidence and causes of major health problems

Diet and lifestyle - A balanced diet is an important way of protecting health.

INCIDENCE OF OBESITY - Obesity results in an imbalance between energy intake and energy needs. Too many children spend too much time travelling by car instaed of walking or cycling. The increase in obesity suggests that the number of calories consumed is too high for the inactive child. Obesity is a risk factor associated with heart disease, stroke, some cancers and type 2 diabete. Obese people are more likely to suffer from low self esteem and reduced mobility.

DENTAL DECAY - The Children's Dental Health Survey in 2003 suggested that children attending deprieved primary schools were found to have more tooth decay than children in non-deprived schools. Tooth decay is caused by sticky deposits called dental plaque collecting around the gum line and in crevices between teeth. Dental plaque consists of food remains and bacteria in the saliva. If it is not removed when brushing it causes tooth decay. The dental plaque hardens into a substance called tartar and both this and the dental plaque are acidic and dissolve the protective enamel coating on teeth.

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Incidence and causes of major health problems cont

Physical activity

This is important as it prevents heart disease, builds healthy bones and helps maintain good mental health. Inactivity is a risk factor for a number of diseases including cornorary heart disease, high blood pressure etc. Affordable leisure services make it easier for individuals to be more physically active.

Smoking

Smoking is the main cause of lung cancer and is linked to heart disease, chronic bronchitis and asthma. Smoking is increasingly common in deprieved areas. PASSIVE SMOKING is breathing in someones cigarette smoke. This 'second hand' smoke is a major source of indoor air pollution and contributes to the development of disease.

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Incidence and causes of major health problems cont

Alcohol

Drinking alcohol is socially accepted behaviour and many have long term effects, but some people do not drink sensibly causing health problems like heart disease, cancer of the mouth, liver and breast.

Sexual health

Teenage girls living in deprived areas are 4 times more likely to fall pregnant than those living im more affluent areas. STDs being transmitted are increasing. This causes in some cases infertility if untreated.

Drugs

Misuse of drugs can cause overdoses and is increasing the incidence of blood-borne virses

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