External Factors Affecting Social Class and Achievement

  • Created by: ammarahh
  • Created on: 06-10-19 16:24
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  • External Factors affecting Social Class and Achievement
    • Cultural Deprivation
      • lack of values, skills and language- working class parents fail to socialise their children into to mainstream norms and values
      • Bourdieu: exam success needs the right culture; the working class are at a disadvantage
      • The theory is criticised for blaming the victim, Keddie - blame teachers
      • Working Class Subculture
        • Sugarman (1970): fatalism, collectivism, immediate gratification, present time orientation
      • Speech Codes: Bernstein (1961)
        • At school, teachers, textbooks all speak elaborated code
        • The middle class speak in elaborated code- wide vocab, context free, spells out what they mean
        • The working class speak in restricted code- less words, tone of voice, context bound
      • Parental Involvement
        • Douglas (1964) working class parents place less value on education, less ambition
        • Feinstein (2008): middle class parents encourage active learning, education visits, toys and books
    • Material Deprivation
      • Affects energy during class, children may feel sleepy during school time
      • Cultural Capital
        • Bourdieu – middle class likely to grasp abstract ideas, intellectually interested and see value in school
        • Middle class have houses in catchment areas and can afford to send kids to private schools
      • Diet and Health
        • Howard (2001), lower intakes of vitamins, time of school
      • Housing
        • hard to study, disturb sleep, may change schools often, health
      • Finance
        • Bull (1980), lack equipment, hand me downs lead to bullying, may need to work


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