Social Class Differences in Education - External Factors

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  • Social Class Differences in Education - External Factors
    • Cultural Deprivation
      • Intellectual Development
        • development of thinking and reasoning skills
        • Douglas - found working class boys scored lower on tests than middle class boys
          • argues working class parents are less likely to support their children outside of school
      • Language
        • Bernstein looked at language difference between working and middle class students
      • Attitudes and Values
        • Suagrman - argues working class subculture has 4 barriers that affects their educational achievement
          • Fatalism - working class don't believe they can change their class, middle class do
          • Collectivism - valuing being in a group rather than being an individual
          • Immediate Gratification - seeking pleasure now rather than making sacrifices for the future
          • Present time Orientation - working class don't set long term goals whereas middle class see setting goals for the future as important
    • Material Deprivation
    • Cultural Capital
      • Bourdieu - both cultural and material factors link to educational achievement but are related not separate - uses the concept of capital to explain why the middle class is more successful
      • the knowledge, attitudes and values that middle class have that gives them an advantage
      • Three parts to cultural capital - economic, social and cultural
      • Leech et al - found middle class parents are more likely to afford a house in the catchment area of a deirable school
        • 'selection by mortgage' - drive up demads for houses near successful school

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