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What is achievement?
· Educational achievement is a social construct.
· It is sometimes linked to intelligence, but there is
no general agreement on what is meant by
intelligence. Some believe that intelligence is
genetically determined and biologically inherited.
· But ­ the nature-nurture debate?
· What do intelligence tests measure?
· Educational achievement is usually measured by
examination results as they are deemed to
provide an objective criterion.…read more

Slide 3

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The cross-cutting variables
· An analysis of educational examination
results show that they vary across social
characteristics: Class, Gender and Ethnicity.
· However, children are influenced by all of
these factors, not just one of them, which
makes analysis difficult.
· These factors operate both in wider society
and within schools.…read more

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External and Internal Factors
influencing achievement
· External factors: influences on educational
achievement that happen outside the
educational system, such as home and family
background, and wider social issues.
· Internal factors: influences within schools and
the educational system, such as pupil-teacher
relationships; pupil-pupil relationships and
inequalities between schools…read more

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In July 2010, Education Secretary Michael
Gove told a Commons education committee
that "rich, thick kids" do better than "poor,
clever" children, even before they start
· The biggest predictor of how well a child will
do in later life is the parents' income.…read more

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Class differences in education
· Children from middle-class families perform
better than those from working-class
backgrounds, and the class gap in
achievement grows wider as children get
· Middle class children do better at GCSE,stay
on longer in education and take most of the
university places.…read more

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