Environmental Impacts that Affect Agriculture

A mind map on the environmental impacts that affect agriculture

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  • Environmental Impacts of Agriculture
    • Water Supply
      • 'Hydrological growth season' = the length of year there is sufficient water to sustain growth.
      • Precipitation amount, frequency, reliability and intensity impact growth.
      • Rainwater lost by evapotranspiration.
      • Rice needs a lot of water (needs flooding)
      • Wheat has low water requirement.
      • Irregular water can cause fruit to expand and split.
      • Humid conditions increase fungal diseases to soft fruit.
    • Temperature
      • 'Temperature range' =d between min and max temps experienced in the year.
      • Thermal growing season is the season of the year warm enough for plant growth (eg. above 5*)
      • Grass stops growing below 5* so dairy cows pasture fed must be kept in barns over winter.
      • Some crops cannot be exposed to frost (eg. maize and fruit blossom)
    • Light
      • 'Solar insulation' = sunlight landing on a surface.
      • Light is affected by latitude, cloud cover, seasonal and daily changes.
      • May be the limiting factor of photosynthesis.
      • Day length controls egg-laying, growth and flowering.
    • Wind Velocity
      • Affects risk of storm damage and evapouration rates.
      • Cerial crops can be flattened by strong winds.
      • Windbreaks can be used to reduce evapotranspiration (eg. small fields with perimeter walls in malta)
    • Topography, Aspect and Altitude
      • Farm machinary cannot operate on verys teep slopes (eg. gradiant over 10*)
      • Rice padi fields must be flat in order to be flooded during early growth.
      • The topography will affect the 'aspect' (which way it faces). Fruit crops are normally grown on the sunny side of valleys.
      • Cold air can collect in valleys and increase risk of frost damage to fruit crops.
      • Increasing altutude = reducing temperatures = increasing precipitation.
      • High altitude = low pressure and so animals such as llamas can be chosen to farm.
    • Soil (Edaphic)
      • Factors that afect soil fertility include nutrient availibility, structure, texture, depth, pH and biota.

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