Unit 4: Aquaculture - Environmental Impacts

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  • Environmental Impacts
    • Bycatch - non-target organisms caught fishing (usually returned to sea dead)
      • Immature fish - too small to sell - may end up reducing future catches by killing fish before they can breed
      • Individuals caught when catch quota has been reached - killed unnecessarily
      • Species with no commercial value
      • Reflective metal disks help wildlife detect net presence
      • Fishing at night and weighting fishing lines stops birds being caught
    • Seabed Disturbance - trawling or dredging can kill plants and animals
      • Some nets have balls, metal bars or chains to disturb the seabed
    • Food Web Effects
      • Affect predator populations
      • Affect food sources
      • Affect competitor populations
      • Affect bycatch populations
      • Affect prey populations
    • Ghost Fishing - lost fishing gear that continues to catch organisms
      • Dead organisms may act as bait, attracting other organisms
      • Biodegradable lobster and crab pots so they fall apart
      • May also cause physical damage e.g. coral reefs
    • Factory Fishing - boats that stay long times at sea and catch more fish
      • Overexploitation means boats have to go further to be cost effective
      • High fuel consumptions
      • Effluent from fish processing is discharged and can cause deoxygenation
    • Fuel Spills, Pollutants, Exhaust Emissions

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