Energy and Pollution

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  • Created by: sally
  • Created on: 25-05-13 14:33
How is energy used in agriculture and fishing industries?
- fuel for machinery -manufacture of chemicals -food processing -transport -storage
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How does industry use energy?
-transport of goods -machinery operations -heat for melting,drying and distillation
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What causes changes in energy use?
-changes in amount or type of industry -changes in affluence -changes in population size
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Examples of non-renewable resources
nuclear fuels, fossil fuels (coal,gas,oil)
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Examples of renewable resources
Solar, wind, tidal power
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What features of fossil fuels make their exploitation difficult?
-processes are slow -deep extraction difficult -young oils too viscous -young coal has low energy density
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Name the two ways in which coal is extracted?
Deep mining and open cast mining
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Name the limitations of deep mining
-labour intensive -cannot remove huge quantities -expensive -cannot be used for thin streams
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Name the limitations of open cast mining
-all rock above must be moved above -cannot be used for thin streams
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What are the main uses of coal, gas and oil?
Coal: electricity generation, iron and steel industry Gas: domestic heating, electricity generation Oil: liquid vehicle fuels
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What is nuclear fission?
The splitting of the nuclei of fissile fuels that have large atoms.
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What is nuclear fusion?
The joining of the nuclei of small atoms.
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What factors have limited the growth of nuclear power?
-The technology is complex -expensive -strong opposition -uncertainty on long term disposal
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Environmental impact of mining coal and uranium ore?
-habitat loss -noise -dust -turbid drainage water
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Environmental impact of oil extraction and transport?
Oil pollution
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Environmental impacts of burning fossil fuels?
-acid rain -global warming -smog -carbon monoxide
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Environmental impacts of reactor accidents and radioactive waste?
Health risks of ionising radiation.
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What are the environmental impacts of renewable energy resources?
-visual impact of wind farms and HEP reservoirs -ecological impacts due to tidal barrages and HEP -habitat loss due to biofuel production
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What are the main types of HEP schemes?
- high head (low volume, falls a long way) -low head (high volume with a dam) -run of river (small turbine in a river).
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What factors must be considered in a suitable HEP site?
-reliable large volume of water supply -impermeable rock -suitable valley shape - no land conflicts -close to consumers or electricity grid
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What factors must be considered for a Wind farm site?
-large area needed -windiest areas (uplands, open plains or shallow seas)
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Factors that produce larger waves?
-areas with strong winds -winds that blow continually -constant wind direction -a long distance for waves to build up
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What are the advantages of biofuels?
-supply rate can be controlled -can be stored -carbon neutral -high energy density
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What are the disadvantages of biofuels?
-large areas of farmland are required -energy density of straw and wood is lower than fossil fuels -intensive farming may release just as much CO2 as fossil fuels.
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What are the advantages of tidal power?
-time periods of moving water can be predicted -the power output for a large tidal barriage is large compared to other renewable sources
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What are the disadvantages of tidal power?
-intermittent periods make it hard to meet demands -few suitable sites -environmental impacts of barrages are large
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How is electricity made using kinetic energy?
Spinning an electrical conductor in a magnetic field, in conventional power stations heat is used to boil water and the steam spins turbines.
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How is electricity made using light?
Light strikes the surface of a photovoltaic cell, making the surface negatively charged and electrons moving to a conductor powering an electrical appliance.
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How is electricity made from chemical energy?
One chemical accepts electrons and the other releases them. The electrons flowing from one end to another can be used to power electrical equipment.
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Advantages of using electricity?
-no pollution -easy to convert -easy to transport
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Disadvantages of using electricity?
-efficiency of converting is low -no large scale storage -original generating method causes pollution
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How is hydrogen produced?
By electrolysis of water
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Name the 2 ways in which stored hydrogen may be released?
-combustion to produce heat -fuel cells
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What problems do energy storage solve?
-build up a sufficient quantity for transportation -allow production rates to remain constant -energy surplus can be stored until it is needed
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Why may surplus electricity be available?
-power stations may be generating electricity at night -reduction in demand after meals or tv
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What are the environmental problems associated with open cast mining?
-aesthetic problems (landscaping) -dust (spray water) -noise (embankments) -drainage water (lagoons) -derelict site (restoration)
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Sources of radioactive waste?
-fuel manufacture -use in the reactor -contaminated products via fuel -materials that have been exposed to developing products
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What is high level radioactive waste and its storage method?
Used uranium rods. Vitrification - dried waste mixed with molten glass in stainless steel containers and surrounded by concrete.
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What is intermediate level radioactive waste and its storage method?
Metal tubes surrounding the fuel rods. Mixed with cement and stored in stainless steel drums.
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What is low level solid radioactive waste and its storage method?
General equipment and clothing. Sealed in polythene bags, in a steel drum in a concrete lined landfill site.
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What is low level liquid radioactive waste and its storage method?
Waste solutions from fuel storage. Filtered then discharged
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What is low level gas radioactive waste and its storage method?
Gases released during fuel storage. Filtered then released.
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What are the main impacts of HEP stations?
-extraction of gravel,sand,cement and rock -transport and construction of access roads -habiat loss during the flooding of the reservoir
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Impacts after the HEP station has been constructed?
-divides the river which restricts movement of animals and fish -dead organic matter will decay and release methane -sediments settle and reduce turbidity -reduced sedimentation downstream -flow fluctuations -provides new habitat
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What are the environmental impacts of wind power?
Aesthetic pollution - air turbulence -rotating blades can kill birds and bats
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Environmental impacts of tidal power?
-increased sedimentation -restricted flow -pollutants build up behind barrages -obstical to shipping -prevent flooding
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Why will energy supplies change in the future?
-exsisiting resources will be depleted -environmental damage is becoming unacceptable -exsiting resources cannot satisfy the growth in demand -new technologies are being developed
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What factors affect the rate of heat loss from a house?
-the temperature gradient -the thermal conductivity or resistance of the materials that form the building -the loss of warm air from inside the building -chilling effect caused by wind and rain
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How can wastage be reduced?
-turning lights off when not needed -turning thermostat down -not heating empty rooms -turning appliances off
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How can we increase fuel combustion efficiency?
-more valves per cylinder -better engine temperature control -ignition control
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How can efficiency of heat exchanged be increased?
-long narrow pipes to increase surface area -pipes made of a good conductor -the two fluids flow in opposite directions -slow flow rate gives more time for effective heat exchange
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How has vehicle weight been reduced?
-plastics are used instead of metal -high strength steel used -aluminium engine blocks -careful planning of wiring routes
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Energy appliances that reduce energy use?
-fluoresecent lights -thicker insulation on ovens etc -light controls to turn off when there is no movement
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Human activities that cause pollution?
-resource extraction -resource use -manufacturing -disposal of unwanted goods -food production
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Factors that affect the behaviour of pollutants in the environment?
-mobility -state -chemical form -what they affect -direct or indirect action
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Examples of persistent pollutants?
-CFC's -DDT
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Examples of primary pollutants released by humans?
-CO2 by burning fossil fuels -oil by tankers -pesticide in agriculture
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Examples of secondary pollution?
-tropospheric ozone -PAN's
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Examples of direct effects of pollution?
-acid rain damages leaf cuticles -crude oil kills seabirds -DDT kills insects
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Examples of indirect effects of pollution?
CFC's cause ozone depletion leads to DNA damage -CO2 increased levels melt ice and increase sea levels flooding and killing animals
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How do pollutants act differently in the atmosphere?
-they move rapidly due to winds -can interact easily with radiation from the sun -can interact with infra-red energy radiated from the earth.
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What are the major gases that cause acid rain?
-sulfur dioxide -sulfur trioxide -oxides of nitrogen -ozone
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What tissues and organisms are sensitive to acid damage?
-stomata -plant root hairs -germinating seeds -fish eggs and fish gills -invertebrates with exoskeletons -lichens
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Indirect effects of acid rain?
Toxic ions inhibit enzymes.
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The two reactions involved in the production of triatomic oxygen?
NO2 - NO + O O + O2 - O3
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What are the main sources of smoke pollution?
-burning vegetation -burning fossil fuels
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The effects of smoke on the climate?
Increase albedo, cooling.
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The effects of smoke on living organisms?
Cause irritation and bronchitis can be carcinogenic.
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The effects of smoke on non-living objects?
Damage surfaces and cleaning buildings is expensive.
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Reaction showing formation of PAN's
NO + O3 + hydrocarbons -PANS
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General methods to control air pollution?
Clean Air Act 1956 -Montreal Protocol 1987 -Kyoto Protocol 1997 -Landfill tax
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What is used to control oxides of sulfur?
Flue gas desulfurisation (FGD) Fuel desulfurisation.
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What happens in fuel desulfurisation?
Hydrogen sulphide is removed from gas. Sulphur compounds are removed from crude oil in distillation. Sulphur in coal is removed by crushing it.
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What happens in FGD?
Adding of limestone or sodium sulphate. Limestone reaction creates calcium sulphate which can make gypsum. Sulphur dioxide is main in the other process which is used in raw industrial materials.
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What is used to control oxides of nitrogen?
Low temperature combustion, catalytic converters, urea sprays.
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What is used to control smoke pollution?
Electrostatic precipitators, cyclone separators, scrubbers, more efficient combustion
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What is used to control methane pollution?
reduced landfill sites, gas collection during fuel extraction, control and disposals of CFC's.
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What factors affect water pollution?
size of emissions, volume of water, residence time, removal rate and dispersal.
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What are the effects of thermal pollution?
enzymes denatured and less dissolved oxygen, resistance to disease reduced.
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What is used to control thermal pollution?
Hot water sprays, heat is transferred to the air instead of water.
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What are the causes of oil pollution?
vehicle engines can leak, industrial machine oil into drains, tanker accidents, accidental spillages.
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What are the effects of oil pollution?
Asphyxiation and drowning of many aquatic species, lowered oxygen in water.
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How do we control oil pollution?
Recycling oil, good maintenance of machines, bund walls in tankers, improvement to tanker design and operation, oil interceptors, cleaning oil spill.
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How can we limit oil pollution damage and clean up spills?
Inflatable booms, skimmers, absorbant materials, polymerising chemicals, bioremediation
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What are the principal properties of pesticides?
specificity, persistence, bioaccumulation, biomagnification, mobility
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What are the effects of pesticide pollution?
Toxic and lethal to species, species food availability reduced, inhibit metabolic processes.
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What are the effects of organochlorines?
Poisoned birds of prey, pelicans and otters. They bioaccumulate and biomagnify.
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What are the effects of organophosphates?
Cause paralysis and is very toxic and not persistant.
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What are the effects of pyrethroids?
Toxic to fish an kill bees and butterflies. Not persistant or liposoluble.
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Methods of reducing pesticide pollution?
Restrictions on use, use of non-persistant and specific pesticides, pest resistant crops.
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What are the sources of inorganic nutrients?
Nitrates and phosphates washed off farmland and found in sewage effluent.
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What are the effects of inorganic nutrient pollution?
Causes blue baby syndrome, reduces oxygen carried in blood. Can be carcinogenic, eutrophication.
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How do we control inorganic nutrient pollution?
reduced nitrate fertilisers, reduced ploughing, avoid dumping waste manure near river source.
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What are the effects of organic nutrient pollution?
deoxygention, pathogens, release of inorganic nutrients
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What are the main processes of sewage treatment?
Pre-treatment (removal of solid objects) primary (seperation of fluids and solids) secondary (breakdown of organic matter) tertiary (treatment to remove bacteria) sludge treatment.
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How can sludge be disposed?
landfill, dumping at sea, incineration and agricultural use
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How is turbidity tested?
Secchi disk
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How is pH tested?
universal indicator paper
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How are nitrates tested?
colorimeter
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How is BOD measured?
electronic oxygen meter
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What are the advantages of using biotic indices?
they monitor current and past pollution, help trace a source of pollution, very sensitive, dont need expensive monitoring equipment.
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Disadvatanges of biotic indices?
time consuming, difficult to interpret, identification can be difficult
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What species make good indicators?
easy to identify, widely distributed and easy to find.
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What are the main properties of heavy metals?
Enzyme inhibition, bioaccumulation, biomagnification, synergism.
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What are the pathways that lead to the absorption of lead?
Industry, water, paint, petrol
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What are the effects of noise pollution?
deafness, stress, behavioural changes, headaches etc
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What are the sources of noise pollution?
industry, transport, aircraft, domestic
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How do we control noise pollution?
Ear protectors, better designed equpiment, quieter roads an vehicles, engine design, airports sited away from urban areas, double glazing,
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What are the different types of ionising radiation?
alpha, beta, gamma, neutrons
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What are the effects of ionising radiation?
Free radicals are produced, dna mutations.
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Sources of radiation exposure?
cosmic radiation, gamma rays from lithosphere, internal radiation from body, radon from the ground, medical and occuplational exposure
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Methods of reducing exposure
Closed sources, absorbers, reduce the period of exposure, CPA, environmental sampling
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Why are there problems with dealing with domestic waste?
large quantities produced, many different types of waste are mixed, composition varies seasonally
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What increases the amount of solid waste?
Built in obsolescence, disposal products, over-packaging
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What factors affect the choice of disposal method?
level and type of industry, legislation, availability of recycling
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Disadvantages of landfill?
large area is used, toxic leachate, organic matter decays
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What are the features of a managed landfill site?
plastic liners, leachate collection, perimeter fence, water sprays, regular covering
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What factors need to be taken into consideration for landfill reclamation?
topography, stability, drainage, ph, lack of nutrients, toxic materials, asbestos, cyanide waste
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Disadvantages of incineration?
fuel is needed for wet waste, dioxins may be released, atmospheric pollution
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

How does industry use energy?

Back

-transport of goods -machinery operations -heat for melting,drying and distillation

Card 3

Front

What causes changes in energy use?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Examples of non-renewable resources

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Examples of renewable resources

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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