British Empire

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  • Created by: Zainaaax
  • Created on: 04-05-15 18:01
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  • British Empire
    • Big powers= divided into two rival alliances
      • 1930's- new  divisions=     forming
        • Democracies and Dicatorships
    • Main features of Democracy:
      • Everybody in Britain (over 18) vote and help choose govern't
      • Voters have choice b/t several political parties
      • Govern't is in power for limited period (5 years). After must be another election
      • Everybody (incl'g govern't) must obey law of land
      • Freedoms e.g criticise govern't or protest against, belong to trade unions, follow any religion= highly valued and some democracies= protected by law
      • USA, Britain, France-> followed system in 1930s. Other countries= rejected it
        • Countries abandoned democracy and turned to dictatorship
          • Germany & Italy had FASCIST dictatorships
            • USSR (prev. Russian empire) = had COMMUNISTdicatorship
    • USSR
      • Vast majority= peasants & v. poor, little industry
        • Russia governed by Tsar Nicolas (Emperor)
          • Not elected, kept himself in power by harsh laws. Had spies/secret police to discover opponents and get rid of them, sent them to labour camps
          • Russia in WW1 made it worse
            • 2 mil soldiers= killed, army suffered heavy defeat
              • shortage of food= people starving
          • 1917- two revol's, COMMUNISTS led by Lenin to power
            • Russia + smaller states= Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR)
              • 1924- Lenin died, replaced by Joseph Stalin
      • Communists ran USSR as dictatorship
        • No other parties allowed to exist. Opponents= executed, sent to labour camps. Stalin sent 8mil, many died
        • No one allowed to have open religious beliefs. Pictures/statues of Stalin, people had to obey/worshiphim
        • industry taken over by STATE, grew quickly in 1920s/1930s.Communists improved state educ'n & healthcare for ordinary SOVIET people.
        • Peasants not allowed to own farms. Worked w/ others in collective farms owned by state.
          • if objected-> executed or sent to farm in remote northern regions
            • well-off peasants= kulaks, killed in 1000's. 1932-33= terrible famine, killed 5mil peasants
    • ITALY
      • Although Italy was on winning side in WW1, may soldiers killed & gained little from Treaty of Versailles= felt cheated
      • 1919- suffering unempl't & high food prices-> people hungry
        • strikes &  demos, rich people worried about Communist rev
          • supported Mussolini, leader of FASCIST party
            • followers beat up communists and opponents
              • if in charge, would bring back strong govern't
      • 1922- 1000's of M's followers announced march in Rome.
        • king feared street battles & chaos, make M PM, M took over= soon a dictator
          • opponent's of fascists= beaten up/imprisoned, other political parties abolished
            • workers not allowed to go on strike
              • M made Roman Catholicism official religion of Italy, gained support of Pope
                • made great improvements in economy: built roads, developed farming & industry, built huge dams to prov' elec

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