Causes of WW1

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  • Created by: Zainaaax
  • Created on: 03-05-15 14:51
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  • Causes of WW1
    • Europe's main power/ strongest countries= rivals for land and trade
    • Britain
      • Richest & most powerful country
      • Strongest navy
      • Concentrated on its navy to defend country and protect empire
    • Made alliances to defend themselves from attack
    • TRIPLE ENTENTE= Britain, France, Russia
    • Germany
      • 1871- Defeated France in Franco-Prussian war
      • v. powerful army
      • Kaiser was jealous of British empire, wanted more colonies
      • Schliefen Plan: Germans desperate to avoid war on 2 fronts-> came up w/ aggressive plan
    • Russia
      • Largest but poorest country
      • Tsar had total power
      • Large  population
    • France
      • Weaker than Britain and Germany
      • French pride= hurt when defeated by Germany, lost provinces= Alsace and Lorraine
    • AH
      • Worried that the Slavs wanted to join with Serbia
    • Italy
      • Wanted to gain land (colonies)
    • TRIPLE ALLAINCES= Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy
    • France hates Germany
      • Britain threatened by Germany
      • France and Britain were getting closer
    • EMPIRE
      • The Balkan Wars:     1912-13           Serbia doubled in size, Austria's leaders= worried that a stronger Serbia threatened their own empire and wanted opportunity to crush them
      • Rivalry over empires: 19th century, Great Powers built up large oversea empires-> quarrels (e.g Morocco 1905-1911)
      • Attitude towards war: Early 20th century, European rulers believed short, decisive wars= acceptable way of settling quarrels to increase country's power
      • Colonial Rivalry: By 1900- if there was a war= would be a world war because will use their empires
    • NATIONALISM
      • Assass'n  at Sarajevo, June 28 1914= Archduke Franz Ferdinand (heir to Austrian thone) murdered by Serb nationalist- Gavrilo Princip
      • Rivalry in the Balkans: had existed b/t Austria & Russia since early 19th cent. Russia wanted to influence area by becoming 'protector' of Balkan countries. Serbia & growth of Russian influence= dangerous threat to  Austria
      • Austria's Ultimatum to Serbia- 23rd July 1914, incl'd 10 demands to punish Serbia. Serbia refused part of it, Austria declared war on Serbia
    • ARMIES & NAVIES
      • Franco- Prussian war 1870-1: German vs France, Germany won, seized french provinces
      • Germany's  world policy: 1888- Kaiser Wilhelm II wanted Germany to be a 'world power'-> establishing empire overseas & building large navy
      • Military Plans: 1900- Great Powers making secret military plans in case war broke out (e.g. Schlieffen Plan) ; incr'd tensions in Europe
      • Aliliance System: grown up since 1879. By 1907, GP= divided into Triple Alliances & Triple Entente. Each group= suspicious and fearful of others
      • Outbreak of War, July- August 1914: 29th July- Russia mobilised army          1st August- Germany declared war on Russia. France= mobilised    3rd August= Britain demanded Germany stop preparing to invade Belgium         4th August= Germany invaded Belgium to attack France. Britain declared war on Germany
      • Anglo-German naval  rivalry: began in 1900. Germany built 100- Britain built new ships. Soon full scale arms race developed b/t Britain and Germany

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