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Industrial Revolution

Industries such as the cotton trade were particularly hard for workers to endure long hours of labour. The nature of the work being done meant that the workplace had to be very hot, steam engines contributing further to the heat in this and other industries. Machinery was not always fenced off and workers would be exposed to the moving parts of the machines whilst they worked. Children were often employed to move between these dangerous machines as they were small enough to fit between tightly packed machinery. This led to them being placed in a great deal of danger and mortality (death rates) were quite high in factories. Added to the dangers of the workplace also consider the impact of the hours worked. It was quite common for workers to work 12 hours or more a day, in the hot and physically exhausting work places. Exhaustion naturally leads to the worker becoming sluggish (slow), which again makes the workplace more dangerous.

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Industrial Revolution Part 2

Factory Act 1819 Limited the hours worked by children to a maximum of 12 per day. Factory Act 1833 Children under 9 banned from working in the textiles industry and 10-13 year olds limited to a 48 hour week. Factory Act 1844 Maximum of 12 hours work per day for Women. Factory Act 1847 Maximum of 10 hours work per day for Women and children. Factory Act 1850 Increased hours worked by Women and children to 10 and a half hours a day, but not allowed to work before 6am or after 6pm. 1874 No worker allowed to work more than 56.5 hours per week.

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Industrial Revolution part 3

Problems for the poor-

Starvation

Murder

Rape

Thirst (death)

DO NOT MENTION JACK THE RIPPER!

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Industrial Revolution Part 4

The British Empire was a global power that contained territories owned by the United Kingdom. The empire was the largest empire in history, and at its peak controlled 23% of the world's surface. More than 458 million people were brought under the control of the British Empire. It was known as the largest colonial empire in history. (Some people think the Mongol Empire was larger). Today, most of its members are in the Commonwealth of Nations. The most famous part of the British Empire was the East India Trading Company, which started out as a small business before becoming a very large trading company which many people depended on. Britain was the most powerful country in the world at this time.

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Outbreak of WW1- Causes p1

One person who strongly supported Serbian power had sent five men to kill Ferdinand. They all failed to kill the Archduke while he passed through the large crowd. The grenades thrown at the car did not kill him. After failing their mission, the five men decided to give up and go home. One of these men was a Bosnian student named Gavrilo Princip, who was also part of a group called the Black Hand.

The archduke and his wife were entering the city when the controller of their car took a wrong turn onto a large street with many people. Princip saw the archduke and his wife. He took out a gun from his pocket and shot at Ferdinand; two hit the archduke, one hit his wife, and the other hit the car. Both Ferdinand and his wife died shortly after.

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Outbreak of WW1- Causes p2

Austria-Hungary blamed Serbia for the assassination. Germany, which supported Austria-Hungary, said that they should make a list of things that Serbia should do as punishment for killing the Archduke. Austria-Hungary was very strict, perhaps because they wanted an excuse to start the war. Though Serbia agreed to most of ten of the things on the list, they could not agree to them all. Austria-Hungary then declared war on Serbia.

Russia joined the war on Serbia's side because the people of Serbia were Slavic, like Russia, and the Slavic countries had agreed to help each other if they were attacked. Since Russia is a large country it had to move soldiers closer to the war, but Germany feared that Russia's soldiers would also attack Germany. Russia did not like Germany because of things Germany had done in the past to become stronger. Germany declared war on Russia, and used a plan to attack Russia that had been created before the war, but it also involved attacking France and Belgium. France and also Great Britain joined the war because Great Britain had agreed to help Belgium if it were ever attacked by someone else.

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Outbreak of WW1- Causes p3

This quickly led to a full-scale war. Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia. Both country's allies became involved in the war, and soon most of Europe became involved.


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The Somme- A success?

For a lot of people the Battle of the Somme was considered a failure purely because of the amount of British soldiers lost per day. On the first day Britain had over 57,470 casualties along with 19,240 killed.

But if you look at the battle in a tacticians perspective the battle was a major success that led to the Germans downfall. 

First of all Britain learnt from their mistakes and started placing commanders in to the front line so that they could easily and quickly give out new commands (Before it could take them 11 hours to find out what was going on and then to issue a command, because they were miles behind the front line). They also realised that when they attacked early in the morning how ever much of land they gained by midday Germany could have the rest of the day to counter Attack and take back the land that they had lost.

Second of all because Britain was losing the battle they decided to take a big risk by using the TANK for the first ever time in history! This was aa great success as the British pushed on a few miles quicker than normal. (Although the tanks eventually broke down part way through the battle so then they were no use after but Britain then knew they were a powerful weapon)

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General Douglas Haig

In an attempt to break the stalemate on the Western Front and relieve the pressure on the French at Verdun, Haig ordered the Somme offensive, which began on 1 July 1916. The British army suffered 60,000 casualties (just under 20,000 of whom were killed) on the first day, the highest in its history, and Haig's conduct of the battle made him one of the most controversial figures of the war. In July 1917, a new offensive - the Third Battle of Ypres (also known as Passchendaele) resulted in further heavy casualties, but did succeed in weakening the German army and helped prepare the way for its defeat in 1918. Haig believed that the war could only be won on the Western Front. This caused friction with Lloyd George, secretary of state for war and prime minister from December 1916 who disagreed with this strategy, supported alternative schemes and intrigued against Haig. The great German attacks of the spring of 1918 almost broke the British army, but inspired the creation of a single command of allied forces on the Western Front under the French commander Ferdinand Foch, strongly supported by Haig. Between August and November 1918 the Allied forces under Haig's command achieved a series of victories against the German army which resulted in the end of the war.

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Technology used, and was it successful? p1

Actually, the aforementioned tanks, airplanes, and chemicals were generally the ONLY significant technologies invented DURING the First World War. And, overall, none proved to be a significant factor. 

Chemical warfare, while horrible, proved to be unwieldy and unpredictable, and relatively easy to counter. After some limited successes against unprepared opponents, the use of chemical gas had very little tactical benefit; the recognition of this limited utility is that after widespread use in 1915 - except for the short-lived effects of the introduction of mustard gas in 1917 - gas was abandoned by both sides as an effective tactic. 

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p2

Tanks likewise had very limited impact, though for different reasons. They were not available in sufficient numbers to make a difference when first deployed, and the technology was too new - WW1 tanks were too slow, too expensive, had too little armor, and broke down much too fast. Tanks in WW1 were "proof-of-concept", in that they showed a potential to change warfare, but the actual tank available was not up to the task of being useful. Tanks played no real role in the collapse of the German Army in 1918, and had extremely limited successes on the battlefield. 

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p3

Airplanes were in a similar position as tanks - the technology was really too new and immature for effective combat use. At best, the airplane provided better observation and reconnaissance ability than previously available, but, in a static trench-warfare setting (with the commonly poor European weather), the amount of benefit this provided is easy to overstate. Tactical and strategic bombing was non-existent; the airplane would have to wait for the wars of the 30s and 40s before becoming a useful (and game-changing) weapon. 

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WW2 Turning Points p1

Battle of Britain

If the RAF had been destroyed, the English fleet could have then been attacked by the German air force and navy, resulting in the invasion of England and Spain joining the war alongside Germany. Spanish leaders had said if England was knocked out of the war they would join in. If Germany had defeated or otherwise subdued Britain in 1940, Germany would have reaped these benefits: time to continue building their military machine before invading Russia; the ability to attack Russia without Britain as an enemy in the rear; loss to the Allies of Britain as a staging area for invasion of Europe/Africa, etc. It is not all that far-fetched, that the Germans could have won the Battle of Britain. Their strategic mistake was to shift the point of attack, from the RAF (attain air superiority), to wanton and pointless destruction of British cities. The Germans were actually winning the Battle, although both sides were suffering horrendous losses, when they switched to bombing cities, etc. Once the Luftwaffe had achieved air superiority over Britain, an invasion (by air or sea) becomes achievable.

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p2

  • In terms of the western front, the Luftwaffe failure to defeat the RAF in the Battle of Britain was a major failure on the German part, and it's not like they didn't have the opportunity, with Hitler and Goering changing tactics from the airfields to the cities just when the RAF's back was nearly broken. (It came back to haunt the Germans later when the Allies began to launch the infamous bombing raids on German cities and the main industrial sectors.)
  • This was probably one of the most important turning points in the war. If Hitler had defeated Britain the US and Russia would have lost a valuable ally and it would have allowed Germany to concentrate on the USSR. It also allowed D-Day and El Alamein to happen.
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p3

  • The Battle of Britain was one of the most important events during the courseof World War II, this showed the people of the world that Hitler was not undefeatable, the British showed everyone what the Germans were weak at. The Battle of Britain kept the British from German control and later staged the D-Day landings, when if the Allies had not re-entered Europe Russia would have been alone against the Germans. If the Americans, British and other Allied forces had not gained the French beaches then France would have still been under German control. Without Britain being free, Germany would still have controlled Eastern Europe, and would not have had to fight on two fronts, meaning it could concentrate the bulk of their forces in Russia.
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p3

  • The Battle of Britain was one of the most important events during the courseof World War II, this showed the people of the world that Hitler was not undefeatable, the British showed everyone what the Germans were weak at. The Battle of Britain kept the British from German control and later staged the D-Day landings, when if the Allies had not re-entered Europe Russia would have been alone against the Germans. If the Americans, British and other Allied forces had not gained the French beaches then France would have still been under German control. Without Britain being free, Germany would still have controlled Eastern Europe, and would not have had to fight on two fronts, meaning it could concentrate the bulk of their forces in Russia.
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p3

  • The Battle of Britain was one of the most important events during the courseof World War II, this showed the people of the world that Hitler was not undefeatable, the British showed everyone what the Germans were weak at. The Battle of Britain kept the British from German control and later staged the D-Day landings, when if the Allies had not re-entered Europe Russia would have been alone against the Germans. If the Americans, British and other Allied forces had not gained the French beaches then France would have still been under German control. Without Britain being free, Germany would still have controlled Eastern Europe, and would not have had to fight on two fronts, meaning it could concentrate the bulk of their forces in Russia.
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p3

  • The Battle of Britain was one of the most important events during the courseof World War II, this showed the people of the world that Hitler was not undefeatable, the British showed everyone what the Germans were weak at. The Battle of Britain kept the British from German control and later staged the D-Day landings, when if the Allies had not re-entered Europe Russia would have been alone against the Germans. If the Americans, British and other Allied forces had not gained the French beaches then France would have still been under German control. Without Britain being free, Germany would still have controlled Eastern Europe, and would not have had to fight on two fronts, meaning it could concentrate the bulk of their forces in Russia.
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p3

  • The Battle of Britain was one of the most important events during the courseof World War II, this showed the people of the world that Hitler was not undefeatable, the British showed everyone what the Germans were weak at. The Battle of Britain kept the British from German control and later staged the D-Day landings, when if the Allies had not re-entered Europe Russia would have been alone against the Germans. If the Americans, British and other Allied forces had not gained the French beaches then France would have still been under German control. Without Britain being free, Germany would still have controlled Eastern Europe, and would not have had to fight on two fronts, meaning it could concentrate the bulk of their forces in Russia.
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p3

  • The Battle of Britain was one of the most important events during the courseof World War II, this showed the people of the world that Hitler was not undefeatable, the British showed everyone what the Germans were weak at. The Battle of Britain kept the British from German control and later staged the D-Day landings, when if the Allies had not re-entered Europe Russia would have been alone against the Germans. If the Americans, British and other Allied forces had not gained the French beaches then France would have still been under German control. Without Britain being free, Germany would still have controlled Eastern Europe, and would not have had to fight on two fronts, meaning it could concentrate the bulk of their forces in Russia.
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p3

  • The Battle of Britain was one of the most important events during the courseof World War II, this showed the people of the world that Hitler was not undefeatable, the British showed everyone what the Germans were weak at. The Battle of Britain kept the British from German control and later staged the D-Day landings, when if the Allies had not re-entered Europe Russia would have been alone against the Germans. If the Americans, British and other Allied forces had not gained the French beaches then France would have still been under German control. Without Britain being free, Germany would still have controlled Eastern Europe, and would not have had to fight on two fronts, meaning it could concentrate the bulk of their forces in Russia.
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p4

I give the BoB a low ranking on the ladder because it was really only a pipe dream of Hitler's. There was no way he could have moved enough men across the Channel, let alone gain air superiority. Nevertheless, the Battle of Britain ate up many German aircraft that otherwise would have been flying over the Eastern Front.

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Holocaust

When the word "Holocaust" is spelled with a capital 'h', it usually means The Holocaust during World War II, when the Nazis killed millions of Jews, in the concentration camps.

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