History Medicine Through Time Ancient World

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  • Ancient World 20,000BC - 467AD
    • Prehistoric 20,000BC - 3000BC
      • Natural causes
        • Herbal remedies from women family members
        • Fevers and pains - steam sweat lodges, herb tea
        • Accidents
        • Hunting and war wounds
        • Cuts and wounds - plants
        • Some cures contained chemicals - antiseptics, anaesthetics
      • Supernatural causes
        • Gods
        • Spirits
        • Witches
        • Enemies
        • CURES
          • Medicine Man
          • Charms
          • Prayers, chants
          • Trephining
          • Herbal remedies
      • Hunter Gatherers
        • Always on move - avoided diseases
          • Severe bleeding
          • Cuts  - covered in mud, bound with bark strips
        • No polluted water supplies
          • Caught anthrax, rabies - animal skins, bites
        • No human poo - it attracted diseases
        • Trephining
          • Infection  - cuts from attacks
        • Charms
      • Farmers
        • Set broken bones
        • Polluted water - animals
        • Medicine Man
          • Charms and prayers to God
        • Painful joints and bones
        • Trephining
        • Evil spirits belief
        • Herbs and honey - cured sore throats
    • Egypt 3000BC - 1000BC
      • Egyptians were literate so they were able to write down a proper examination, diagnosis and treatment.
      • INFLUENCIAL FACTORS
        • River Nile
          • Flooded every year
          • Nile getting blocked idea - nerves got blocked as well, idea of cause of illness
            • Led to treatments like bloodletting and laxatives - clear blockage.
        • Trade
          • Herbs from other countries
          • Allowed healers to use wide variety of herbal remedies
        • Communication
          • Hyrogliphics
            • Preserved written documents for later generationsdoctors
          • Alexandra medical library - learn about medicine
          • Developed writing
        • Government
          • Laws and taxes
          • Strong govs - invested money and develop medical theories
        • Religion
          • Afterlife belief
            • Organs removed
              • Priests practiced cleanliness
                • Mixed medicines
          • Mummification
            • Helped  doctors learn about parts of body
              • Bodies preserved
                • Made sacrifices
        • Technology
          • New metals  - sharper medical instruments
      • CHANGES IN MEDICINE
        • Specialist Doctors
          • Doctors and Priests
          • Trained by studying medical papyri recording cases and treatments
            • Pharaohs made them rich, improved medical knowledge,bought surgical instruments
        • Cause of illness ideas
          • Gods and evil spirits
            • Doctors though people were like crops - they needed food, water and air to survive
          • River Nile theory
        • Treatments
          • Doctors unblocked channels by...
            • Bloodletting
            • Vomitting
            • Emptying bowels
        • P.H.
          • Egyptians washed twice a day - religion
            • Rich people had servants bathe them
          • Eye diseases prevented by a chemical in eye make up.
        • Knowledge of body
          • Doctors knew about...
            • Heart
            • Lungs
            • Liver
            • Brain
            • Veins
            • Arteries
            • Muscles
            • Many bones
          • Belief that all body is needed in after life - religion
          • Knowledge gained from examining wounded soldiers or workers injured
          • Knowledge gained from embalming
            • Process of removing and preserving body's organs after death
          • Historians aren't sure whether embalming helped improve bc it was unclean
        • Surgery
          • Trephining
          • Cutting out swellings
          • Sewing up wounds
      • Egypt was wealthy - they could employed doctors, afford good medicine tools
    • Greeks 1000BC - 50AD
      • ASCLEPIONS
        • An asclepion - a temple dedicated to Greek god of healing, Asclepius
        • People thought they were healed in an asclepion by...
          • Asclepius
          • His daughters - Panacea and Hygeia
          • Asclepius' snake
        • People believed they were healed through the night, the Gods would treat them when asleep
        • Asclepias contained...
          • Baths
          • A gymnasium
          • Athletic stadium
          • Temples to prayer
        • How they helped
          • People competed in sports or watch in fresh air if too ill to take part
          • Keep fit in a gym
            • Patients fed a balanced diet
          • Asclepius built in mountains - fresh clean air, healthier breathing
          • Exercise in baths and this would clean them
        • Sometimes people got well
          • They believed they would
          • Maybe they would anyway
          • Natural remedies sometimes worked
      • FOUR HUMOURS
        • Created by Hippocrates
        • The Four Humours were...
          • Black Bile
          • Blood
          • Yellow Bile
          • Phlegm
          • If any of the humours became unbalanced the person would become ill
        • Basis for most Greek treatments
          • Therefore, it's important in history of medicine
            • Even though it was wrong
        • Theory believed for over 1000 years
        • First natural explanation for illness
      • HIPPOCRATES
        • Hippocratic Oath
          • Created by Hippocrates
          • Showed doctors weren't magicians
          • High standards of treatment and behaviour at work
          • Work for benefits of patients, not to be wealthy
          • Not allowed to tell anyone what is wrong with patients
        • Hippocratic Collection of Books
          • Over 60 books written by himself and other doctors
          • First detailed list of symptoms and treatments
        • Observing and Recording
          • Important to observe and record carefully the symptoms and development of diseases
            • Two advantages
              • Doctors more likely to choose right cure
              • Notes could be used for future patients
      • Disease and Infection
        • Treated illness by writing detailed notes on symptoms
        • Bloodletting (balancing humours)
          • Advised people on fitness and diet
      • SURGERY AND ANATOMY
        • Could set broken bones and amputate limbs
          • City of Alexandria
            • Uni and a library containing written medical knowledge
            • Human dissection legal for a time
            • 350BC - Herophilius discovered brain controlled body, not heart
            • Erasistratus discovered -
              • Heart pumps blood around body
                • Brain sends messages to body through nerves
        • Learned how to drain lungs for people with pneumonia
        • Very few operations done inside body
        • More interested in cause of illness and 4 humours than surgery
      • P.H.
        • Gov weren't interested in improving
          • Gov left people to keep clean and prevent illnesses by themselves
    • ROMANS 27BC - 467AD
      • GALEN
        • Believed in four humours
          • Developed theory of opposites
            • Encouraged dissection
        • Made notes  of symptoms
        • Took people's pulse
          • Believed body was created by one God
            • Supported by Christians - no questioning
        • Discovered the brain controls speech
          • Proved that veins AND arteries carry blood
            • People thought he had all the answers - no one questioned his ideas
        • Wrote many books
        • Gave advice on diet and exercise
        • Performed bloodletting
      • P.H.
        • Roman Army
          • Important to P.H. system - they were responsible to keep empire fed and prosperous
            • Romans avoided building towns and forts in marshland and places with polluted water
        • Fresh water, aqueducts, reservoirs
          • S - Aqueducts carried fresh waterman miles to towns
          • S - Reservoirs held water supply and distributed it to piping system
        • Water pipes
          • S - Made of (metal) lead - no dirt or derby could get inside
          • S - Good invention
          • W - Lead poisoning, Romans didn't know this was happening
        • Forts
          • S - Contained bath - houses, water supply, latrines
          • S - Many had hospitals for soldiers
        • Public latrines
          • S- Often flushed by water, then drained into sewers
          • S - Often seated 20 people
        • Private  homes
          • S - Priv homes of rich supplied with water
          • W - Water had to be carried upstairs by slaves
          • Droughts - supply of water to houses were cut off
        • Bath houses
          • S - Kept people clean and healthy
          • W - 5000 people used baths each week, water only changed once a week
        • Sewers
          • S - Carried waste away from houses, latrines and baths
          • W - Sometimes spread disease
  • How they helped
    • People competed in sports or watch in fresh air if too ill to take part
    • Keep fit in a gym
      • Patients fed a balanced diet
    • Asclepius built in mountains - fresh clean air, healthier breathing
    • Exercise in baths and this would clean them

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