African Americans

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  • Created by: Olivia
  • Created on: 26-04-14 15:41
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  • African Americans
    • Reconstruction Period 1865 - 1877
      • Steps in Reconstruction
        • Emancipation Proclamation 1862 - freed all slaves in confederate states
        • 13th Amendment 1865 - abolished slavery everywhere
        • Civil Rights Act 1866 - citizenship to all former slaves (STATES COULD OVERRIDE THIS - WEAKNESS)
        • 15th Amendment 1870 - guaranteed voting for any man regardless of colour, race etc.
          • tests were sometimes implemented in some places so that they could limit who could vote
        • Civil Rights Act 1875 - equal rights in public places
          • Declared unconstitutional in 1883
        • Freedman's Bureau 1865 - supports freed slaves in short term, provided basis for long term security. not avaliable for all
      • Presidental Reconstruction
        • Andrew Johnson - believed AAs could manage own lives, southern states should decide the course which was best for them
          • IMPEACHMENT - because he had tried to curb impact of radical republicans by power of veto. FAILURE TO IMPEACH.
            • Due to failure allowed reconstruction to continue radically
        • Radical Republicans - Thaddeus Stevens + Charles Sumner
          • Thaddeus Stevens - heavily involved in the abolishment prior to the war
          • Charles Sumner - wanted south to be defeated, made stirring speeches
      • The Slaughter House Case 1873 - impede granting of AAs civil rights
      • US vs. Cruickshank 1873 - armed white militia attacked republic freedman, white mob charged, black victory.
      • Jim Crow Laws - southern segregation laws.
      • Gained SOME civil rights
    • Segregation in South
      • formal segregation introduced on trains, re-enforced school segregation laws
      • Voting Rights - wanted to erode all black voting rights
        • Poll Tax, Property qualification, Literacy tests, Grandfather clauses - introduced to limit voting
          • Mississippi vs. Williams - Poll tax seen as constitutional clears ways for strict conditions
      • Plessy vs. Furguson 1896 - LANDMARK DECISION. SEPARATE BUT EQUAL.  Gives green light to segregation.
      • Theodore Roosevelt - spoke to Booker T. Washington about CR
      • W.H.Taft - spoke to Booker T. Washington about state rights
      • Woodrow Wilson - does nothing for CR, all black advisers dismissed, gov. departments became segregated - encourages segregation to others
    • Activists 1865 - 1992
      • Booker T. Washington
        • W.E.B Dubois opponent
        • Aimed to improved black education
          • Tuskagee - sets up school, positive
        • Criticized for not paying enough attention on civil/political rights
        • Believed AAs should accept what was happening to them
      • W.E.B Dubois
        • Racisim was mian target
        • Strongly protested about lynching
        • Opposed Booker T.Washington
        • Founded NAACP
        • Led Niagara Movement
        • Booker T. Washington was a critic
      • Ida B. Wells
        • Wrote articles on lynching
        • Suffrage for women campaigner
        • W.E.B Dubois - critic, didn't like that she spoke to white supremacists
      • Marcus Garvey
        • wanted diaspora of AAs - move black people to africa
        • W.E.B Dubois wanted to sabotage his Black Star Line
        • More radical than main stream civil rights protestors
        • Pledge to try and protect the race
        • Created Black Star Line to return AA's back to Africa
        • Met with KKK - understood what they wanted because he wanted same for blacks
      • Rosa Parks
        • Montgomery Bus Boycott - refused to give seat to white male
        • 1942 - joined NAACP as an activist
      • Martin Luther King
        • Public face of CRM
        • Church used to reach people
        • Emerges after Montgomery Bus Boycott 1955
        • Birmingham 1963
        • March on Washington Aug 1963
        • Did little for blacks in North as they had different problems other than segregation e.g. unemployment, poor housing, crime, education
        • Started to be overpowered by Malcolm X
        • I Have A Dream Speech
      • Malcolm X
        • Critic of non-violence
        • Northern blacks could relate to X
        • Wouldn't focus on voting rights and desegregation
        • Critic of MLK - didnt think his tactics would work
        • Doesnt want to integrate with White americans
        • Starts to be less dissmissive of CRM in 1963
      • Black Panthers
        • Radical and nationalistic
        • Ten Point Plan
        • Had a great deal of respect from ghettos
        • Would follow police cars to expose brutaility
        • Didnt acheive aims but showed everyone that they were strong and wished to stand up for themselves
    • 1930s
      • FDR different to others
      • NEW DEAL
        • Provided 1 million jobs + 50,000 public housing units
        • 500,000 skilled occupational training
        • no longer to be discriminated against terms of unions and race
        • Federal housing administrations refusal to give mortgages to black families in tradtionally white areas
        • Works Progress Administration - 1 million black americans working for it
        • 30% black families recieve welfare 1935
        • Aims - to relieve human suffering, to promote economic recovery
    • 1950s - 1960s
      • BROWN VS. BOARD OF EDUCATION 1954
        • SC voted that blacks should be able to go to nearest school even if it is a white school - to not let them was unconsitutional
        • Thurgood Marshall - believed education should be integrated
        • gave hope and confidence to AAs
        • Legal precedent
        • Overruled Plessy vs. Furguson
      • Little Rock 1957 - avoid brown ruling
      • Montgomery Bus Boycott 1955 - RP refused to stand for white man, attracted mass support
      • Sit-Ins 1960 - student non violence comittee
      • The Freedom Rides 1961 - aim was to challenge interstate travel
      • Birmingham 1963 - police dogs and cannons was used on black people, it was all recorded on camera - the bad publicity evoked sympathy for AAs
      • Divisions within the CRM started to occur
      • Mississippi Summer Project - Freedom days, Freedom schools, Freedom Summer 1964. Led to militarism due to slow progress towards equality
      • Civil Rights Act 1964 - bans public segregation, sets up fair employment, pushes schools to desegregate, good but not perfect some felt it didn't do enough, failed to facilitate black voting and did little for race relations
      • Chicago 1966 - MLK targeted homing, took money from tennants to make improvements, caused riots. After they were still living in ghettos, were uninterested in voting and they had began to turn to black power
      • The Watts Rots
      • 1960s period of protest
      • Meredith March 1966 - 220 miles to encourage black voting
    • Black Power
      • Controversial term with different meanings for different people eg. black pride, black violence, black separitism
      • Came from ghettos and events which were occurring
      • MLK thought it sounded like black domination
      • Black Panthers
    • Presidents
      • Truman 1945 - 1953 Democrat - out lawed segregation on innerstate buses, made civil rights an issue in 1948 election, was seen as fair, desegregated armed forces in 1948
      • Eisenhower 1953 - 1961 Republican - opposed school segregation 1957, appointed Earl Warren, Brown vs. Board of education, aided black voter registration
      • Kennedy 1961 - 1963 Democrat - no strategy for CR but was forced to act, Civil Rights Bill 1963
      • Nixon 1969 - 1974 Republican - Affirmative action, bussing, Swann vs. Charlotte Mecklenburg 1971, was not initally bothered about CR
      • Ford 1974 - 1977 Republican - limited change on policy of CR, good relations with CR leaders, didnt believe would catch black vote
      • Johnson 1963 - 1969 Democrat - Civil Rights Act 1964, Civil Rights Act 1968, Great Society. Aimed to wage a war on poverty, Launched Headstart
      • Carter 1977 - 1981 Democrat - lacked support on furthering civil rights from blacks
      • Reagan 1981 - 1989 Republican - very little time for ethnic minorities, conservative ideas, attacks welfare states, supports segregation, doesnt appoint many blacks to federal administration, attempts to limit federal support for CR programmes
      • Bush Snr. 1989 - 1993 Republican - Vetoed civil rights bill which made it easier to discriminate in jobs, appointed a conservative black lawyer

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