1. African Americans in the Gilded Age, c.1875-c1895

  • Created by: Alasdair
  • Created on: 07-06-17 11:29
Lack of progress in African American civil rights
Hayes-Tilden Compromise led to Southern states imposing considerable racial segregation, often justified by so-called scientific and sociological theories that 'proved' racial inequality
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Lack of progress in African American civil rights
Period of overseas expansion bolstered attitudes, justifying need to take up 'the white man burden' and civilise other races
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Lack of progress in African American civil rights
Growth of segregated transport began in 1881, with Tennessee enacting segregated railway law and continued with every Southern state following suit
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Lack of progress in African American civil rights
Some AAs favoured segregation, e.g. Booker T. Washington. His view was if AAs took advantage of economic opportunities of Gilded Age then privileges would follow, but they could not be artificially gained by civil rights legislation
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Lack of progress in African American civil rights
Famous Plessy v. Ferguson Supreme Court decision in 1896 cast doubt on whether 14th Amendment referred to 'social, as distinguished from political, equality'
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Lack of progress in African American civil rights
Segregated districts became common not only in South but also in North. Chicago: 5000 AAs were concentrated in one restricted area. NY: Harlem effectively became separate district for city's 23,000 AAs by early 20th Century
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Lack of progress in African American civil rights
Exclusion by registration laws, which restricted black voting, meant AA voters had become powerless minority by 1895
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Lack of progress in African American civil rights
Taxes and complicated tests were established, designed to stop AAs from voting.
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Lack of progress in African American civil rights
Some states enacted 'grandfather clauses' which implicitly discriminated against AAs by allowing people whose ancestors had voted or could vote before 1867 (when First Reconstruction Act was passed) to skip taxes and tests.
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Lack of progress in African American civil rights
Last remaining AA congressman, George H. White, retired in 1901, leaving no AA congressional representation
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Lack of progress in African American civil rights
Punishment for violence and lynchings for minor offences created system whereby law was deliberately ignored in much of South, in favour of mob rule which had unspoken consent of authorities
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Lack of progress in African American civil rights
Westward movement which continued through period was joined by some 40,000 AAs, but this could not relieve tensions
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Lack of progress in African American civil rights
Though there were some AA pioneers and cowboys (Deadwood ****), bulk of AAs lacked capital or expertise to travel westwards to create new homes away from prejudice
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Lack of progress in African American civil rights
Notorious numbers of false arrests and imprisonment, with disproportionate numbers of AA prisoners in chain gangs and labour camps.
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Lack of progress in African American civil rights
Some states saw these forced labour gangs and camps as means of training and controlling young AA men
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Gains in progress for African American civil rights
Literacy was main improvement in period. In 1865, only one in 20 AAs could read, but by 1895, this had risen to one in two.
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Gains in progress for African American civil rights
There had also been a rise in number of AA religious organisations and in banks, insurance schemes and societies and companies run by AAs
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Gains in progress for African American civil rights
By 1900 there were some 47,000 AA professionals including doctors, lawyers, teachers and artists. Admittedly, this was out of an AA population of 8 million.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Period of overseas expansion bolstered attitudes, justifying need to take up 'the white man burden' and civilise other races

Back

Lack of progress in African American civil rights

Card 3

Front

Growth of segregated transport began in 1881, with Tennessee enacting segregated railway law and continued with every Southern state following suit

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Some AAs favoured segregation, e.g. Booker T. Washington. His view was if AAs took advantage of economic opportunities of Gilded Age then privileges would follow, but they could not be artificially gained by civil rights legislation

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Famous Plessy v. Ferguson Supreme Court decision in 1896 cast doubt on whether 14th Amendment referred to 'social, as distinguished from political, equality'

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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