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  • Spain
    • Uniion of Castile and Aragon
      • 1469 Isabella married Ferdinand
        • Ferdinand in marriage concessions 1469 declared he'd live in Castile
          • Marriage concession 1469, Isabella wanted castile to become internally well-known. Ferinand catile offered aragon protection.
            • Ferdinand made 24 concessions, reassure both statesw that he had no intentions of seizing the throne from isabella
          • Marriage strengthened Aragons position.
          • elliott " the monarchs esablished strong personal rule, combining this with an effective administration and a degree of centralisation which had not occured before
            • Henry IV
              • Farce of Avila 1464-65
                • Henry deposed for brother
                  • nobility
                    • Powerful, lots of land. Funded Henrys war
                      • heiretical succession
              • nobility
                • Powerful, lots of land. Funded Henrys war
                  • heiretical succession
              • applied for inquisition DENIED
                • weak political possition
              • 1453 after fall of constantinople and attcked Granda  Failed
              • impotent
                • palencia
          • Segovia agreement 1475
            • no male heir, crown go to ferdinande= foreign rule
              • Ferdinand given military power
                • Isabellas opinion greater the ferdinands
                  • united image. Coat of arms, coins motto
          • forged Papal Bull
        • Didnt have Henrys consent  or Royal council.
          • Royal council
            • 1492 govermental structure established
              • wasnt new, but reorganised
                • Previously; all bishops, Grandees and head military orders allowed to attend. No longer allowed
            • advise monarchs. Devisions and rulingd written up 'royal provisions'
            • 4 main officers
              • The Grand Chancellor
              • Chancellor of the Privy Seal
                • All aided by lawyers or latrados
                  • The Grand Chancellor
                  • Constable
                  • Admiral
                  • eventually all councillors become latrados
                    • 1489 council sumtimes stoof in for F&I whent hey were absent
                      • council of supreme inquisition 1483
                        • Council of Aragon 1494
                        • Inquisiation
                          • Alonso Carrillo condemned guilds on racial lines in toledo 1477
                            • old/new christains
                          • Isabella arrived in seville july 1477, stayed oct 1478
                          • Pope Sixtus IV issued bull of Inquisition 1st nov1478
                            • 27th sept 1480 inquisitors appoinmted at medina del campo
                              • 6 people burned in seville 6th feb 1481... Diego de susan
                              • 11th feb 7 more inquisitors appointed
                              • 17th oct 1483 Torquemada appointed  general
                                • 1490 conspiracy Jews and conversos.
                                  • Holy child of La Gavadia
                                  • 2 infuencial jes raised 30,000 ducats  offered monarchs foir jews to stay
                                    • expelled march 1492 given till 1st july to be out of spanish boarders
                            • revoked 29th jan 1482
                            • political alliance turks
                          • 1391 jews expelled
                          • Aragon Inquisition 15th&17th sept 1485
                            • Pedro death. Conversos dangerous
              • Constable
              • Admiral
            • supervised main departments of state
              • Justice
              • Finance
                • Juros loans
                  • sources of money
                    • personal rule
                      • 1476-98 raised 300 m maravedis
                  • Corregidores
                    • tax collectors, military role, complete monarchys wishes
                      • rejected by AB of Toledo
                        • Corregidores
                          • tax collectors, military role, complete monarchys wishes
                            • rejected by AB of Toledo
                • foreign affairs
                  • Granada war 1482-92
                    • further unified spain. Religous and politcal
                      • eliminate threat of fifth column
                    • used Zhara  dec 1481 justificate
                      • surrendered 2nd jan 1492
                        • Reconquista
                          • If any year can be taken marking the begining of castilian imperealism that was was 1492 ( Elliott)
                            • Aragon Moorish population
                              • cortes dictated policcy. Moors not persecuted
                          • CATHOLIC KINGS
                            • Pope allowed F&I to chose archbishop of Granda 1486
                              • Talavera 1486. Treaty of Granada. FREEDOM Of FAITH
                                • didnt believe in forced conversion
                              • Cisneros 1502 conversion or leave.
                                • 1507 4 cathedrals 100 churches
                        • Entered 6th Epithany
                • Hermandad
                  • sources of money
                    • personal rule
                      • 1476-98 raised 300 m maravedis
                  • Isabella gov through hermandads not cortes
                • Inquisiation
                  • Alonso Carrillo condemned guilds on racial lines in toledo 1477
                    • old/new christains
                  • Isabella arrived in seville july 1477, stayed oct 1478
                  • Pope Sixtus IV issued bull of Inquisition 1st nov1478
                    • 27th sept 1480 inquisitors appoinmted at medina del campo
                      • 6 people burned in seville 6th feb 1481... Diego de susan
                      • 11th feb 7 more inquisitors appointed
                      • 17th oct 1483 Torquemada appointed  general
                        • 1490 conspiracy Jews and conversos.
                          • Holy child of La Gavadia
                          • 2 infuencial jes raised 30,000 ducats  offered monarchs foir jews to stay
                            • expelled march 1492 given till 1st july to be out of spanish boarders
                    • revoked 29th jan 1482
                    • political alliance turks
                  • 1391 jews expelled
                  • Aragon Inquisition 15th&17th sept 1485
                    • Pedro death. Conversos dangerous
          • Didnt amimediately become political union
            • Didnt have Henrys consent  or Royal council.
              • Royal council
                • 1492 govermental structure established
                  • wasnt new, but reorganised
                    • Previously; all bishops, Grandees and head military orders allowed to attend. No longer allowed
                • advise monarchs. Devisions and rulingd written up 'royal provisions'
                • 4 main officers
                  • Chancellor of the Privy Seal
                    • All aided by lawyers or latrados
                      • eventually all councillors become latrados
                        • 1489 council sumtimes stoof in for F&I whent hey were absent
                          • council of supreme inquisition 1483
                            • Council of Aragon 1494
                • supervised main departments of state
                  • Justice
                  • Finance
                    • Juros loans
                    • foreign affairs
                      • Granada war 1482-92
                        • further unified spain. Religous and politcal
                          • eliminate threat of fifth column
                        • used Zhara  dec 1481 justificate
                          • surrendered 2nd jan 1492
                            • Reconquista
                              • If any year can be taken marking the begining of castilian imperealism that was was 1492 ( Elliott)
                                • Aragon Moorish population
                                  • cortes dictated policcy. Moors not persecuted
                              • CATHOLIC KINGS
                                • Pope allowed F&I to chose archbishop of Granda 1486
                                  • Talavera 1486. Treaty of Granada. FREEDOM Of FAITH
                                    • didnt believe in forced conversion
                                  • Cisneros 1502 conversion or leave.
                                    • 1507 4 cathedrals 100 churches
                            • Entered 6th Epithany
                    • Hermandad
                      • Isabella gov through hermandads not cortes
              • Isabella become queen 1474
                • The Coronation
                  • Ferdnind not present
                  • unsheathed sowrd=phalic symbol
                  • removed threat of challenges to crown ( Joanna)
                • Ferdinand became king of Aragon 1479
                  • Inherited
                    • Granada
                    • Valencia
                    • Catalonia
                      • unsuccessful attempts to become independent
                • Palencia; propaganda against Isabella
            • Pope gave blessing 1471 as they were cousins.
            • Castile
              • Geographically larger and larger population
              • more united
                • single cortes
                  • 3 cortes as a result of three kingdoms
                    • monarchy influence limited
                    • large authority
                  • Limited authority
              • devloping commercially: wool trade
            • Aragon
              • powerful nobility. Threat! lots of land feudal tradition.
              • Maditerranean coast line= trade, foot hold to southern italy.
              • Marriage strengthened Aragons position.
              • 3 cortes as a result of three kingdoms
                • monarchy influence limited
                • large authority
            • organised by AB Toldeo
          • Isabella struggled for acceptance
            • Toro 1476
              • called Cortes showing her as ruling monarch
              • removed portugal threat from Joanna and Toldeo
                • 1479 Joanna become a Nun not amount another challenge
                  • "Most glorious epoch in the annuls of spain"
                    • Church plate to fund Isabella
                • portugal remained a distinct  and seperate kingdom till 1580
              • Church plate to fund Isabella
            • birth of son 1478
              • died 1479 Cortes remove hermandad and can have female succession
        • The death of Isabella 1504
          • Named daugter Joanna as heir as long as fir to do so
            • Husband Philip died 1506
              • Schism between noble loyalties after Philips death, support Joanna or Ferdinand
                • 1507, Medina Sidonia went against Ferdinand making declaration that he was king.
                • Nobles took advantage of this and gained land with royal permission
                  • Coretes in Toro 1505 agreed Ferdinand would act as Regent of Castile
                    • Peace made with France 1505 and marry niece (marriage unity)
                      • The death of Isabella 1504
                        • Named daugter Joanna as heir as long as fir to do so
                          • Husband Philip died 1506
                            • Schism between noble loyalties after Philips death, support Joanna or Ferdinand
                              • 1507, Medina Sidonia went against Ferdinand making declaration that he was king.
                              • Nobles took advantage of this and gained land with royal permission
                                • Coretes in Toro 1505 agreed Ferdinand would act as Regent of Castile
                                  • Peace made with France 1505 and marry niece (marriage unity)
                                    • no male heir, Treaty of Villafaila surrendered claims to throne to Joanna and Philip.
                                      • kept masterships
                                        • after Philips death Ferdinand returned . Regent till 1516
                                          • Grandson Charles heir to both castle and Aragon
                                            • Charles
                                              • seen as a reluctant foreign monarch
                                                • Cortes
                                                  • 1538 refused Charles tax
                                                  • summoned more 1516
                                                  • refused to give money to campaign against ottoman turks
                                                  • councils
                                                    • 1522 council of war
                                                      • advisery council deals with coordinating military
                                                    • 1523 Council of finance
                                                      • dealt with accounts of monarch aswell as castiles finances
                                                    • 1526 Council of the Indies
                                                      • Jurisdication over all American issues
                                                    • 1526 Council of State
                                                      • Advisery body. All matters; foreign policies oversaw work of other councils
                                                    • 1480 Royal council of Castile
                                                      • highest administrative body interms of internal matters. Supreme court of law
                                                    • 1494 Council of Aragon
                                                      • judicial matters, highest appeal in the state
                                                    • Gattinara
                                              • 1519 elected HRE
                                                • made coretes travel with him (no happy)
                                                • spainish funding
                                                • Sack of Rome 1527. Pope Trapped under Charles controll
                                              • The comuneros revolt 1520s
                                                • may 1520 charles left spain to receive imperial crown
                                                  • Revolt began in castile
                                                    • imployment of foreigners- adrian of utercht
                                                    • nobiles feared loss of tradition due to changes in government
                                                    • nobles revolt
                                                      • nobiles feared loss of tradition due to changes in government
                                                      • low and middle class become involved
                                                      • became class-based revolt
                                                        • low and middle class become involved
                                                • attempted to use Joanna to bring legitimacy . didnt sign anything against charles
                                                • 1522 chalres returned . Revolts mainly extinguished
                                                  • 1522-29 returns for 7 years to prove himself
                                                  • 1524, Charles issued a pardon
                                                    • 1522-29 returns for 7 years to prove himself
                                              • fought to form a government that would solidify Spain
                                                • The comuneros revolt 1520s
                                                  • may 1520 charles left spain to receive imperial crown
                                                    • Revolt began in castile
                                                      • imployment of foreigners- adrian of utercht
                                                      • nobles revolt
                                                        • became class-based revolt
                                                    • attempted to use Joanna to bring legitimacy . didnt sign anything against charles
                                                    • 1522 chalres returned . Revolts mainly extinguished
                                                      • 1524, Charles issued a pardon
                                                  • coronation 1520
                                                    • declared he would guarentee the electors abnd princes in all their rights and possessions
                                                    • protect them against revolt whether amongst nobility , common people, hostile alliances and leagues.
                                                    • place only born Germans in imperial and court offices
                                                      • only use German and latin in offical writtings and court offices
                                                    • to introduce no foreign armies
                                                      • broken 1547 schmalkaldic war
                                                        • battle of Muhlberg. Charles v schmalkaldic princes. used spainish troops
                                                  • in spain; sept 1517- may 1520, July 1522- July 1529, April 1533-April 1535,dec 1536-1538, JUly 1538-nov 1539, Nov 1558
                                                  • 1522 Adrian of Utrecht gave chalres gifts
                                                    • Crusada (money
                                                    • Patronage
                                                    • Mastership
                                                    • spain recieved money from Rome
                                                  • Reform. Erasmians and Lutherans. Set Catholicism back?
                                                    • council of trent 1545:not assembled to talk about Protestants
                                                      • Femando de valdes. Inquisitor general agressive. 1559 Index of spanish inquisition and issues all spainards abroad to return
                                                        • 1564 Moors no longer in isolation from inquisition
                                                    • Alonso de virues. Chaplain to Charles Areested 1533. Charles prtection sent to canaries
                                                    • Protestannt issue political
                                                      • Luther promoted sola scripture- goes again monarchy ruling
                                                      • no unity and appealed to pluratist intentions. Fear due to the formation od schmalkaldic league 1531
                                                    • Cisneros. Inquisitor general. Rengent in Castile: Crusades in North Africa. Alcala uni polygot bible
                                                      • Adrian of Utrecht 1521 banned Lutheran texts blocked all ports. Pope 1522
                                                        • Alfonso de Manrique. Inquisitor general, 'blanket of protection' 1529 fell from favour son contect with Erasmus
                                                          • son friends with Luis vives who was an academic in paris didnt return out of fear  (parents conversos)
                                                            • Juan de Valdes. educated at Alcala. 1529 published ' Dialogue of christian docterine' flees 1530
                                                              • Joan de Vegara. senior academic at alcala. named text source Isabel de la cruz whow as arrested 1533
                                                          • Juan de Valdes. educated at Alcala. 1529 published ' Dialogue of christian docterine' flees 1530
                                                            • Joan de Vegara. senior academic at alcala. named text source Isabel de la cruz whow as arrested 1533
                                                  • Absent
                                                  • Abdicated 1556
                                              • death 1516
                                                • Castle and Aragon separated plans to devided tit between charles and Ferdinand (grandsons)
                                                  • Charles recongnised as heir
                              • Wanted ferdianand to taker her role but  Joanna was the rightful heir
                              • 1515 Cisneros made a direct appeal to Charles in Burgundy
                                • Cisneros
                                  • Granada, baptized 3,000 1499
                                  • uni of Alcala 1508
                                    • producing Erasmians
                                      • promoted independent thinking.
                                      • e.g. Alfonso de Manrique educated at Alcala. when inquisitor provided a blanket of protection to Erasmians.
                                  • Publication  of Polygot bible 1522
                                    • Hebrew, Greek and latin
                                  • banned preaching of indulgences
                                  • regent in spain till charles arrived
                            • no male heir, Treaty of Villafaila surrendered claims to throne to Joanna and Philip.
                              • kept masterships
                                • after Philips death Ferdinand returned . Regent till 1516
                                  • Grandson Charles heir to both castle and Aragon
                                    • Charles
                                      • seen as a reluctant foreign monarch
                                        • Cortes
                                          • 1538 refused Charles tax
                                          • summoned more 1516
                                          • refused to give money to campaign against ottoman turks
                                          • councils
                                            • 1522 council of war
                                              • advisery council deals with coordinating military
                                            • 1523 Council of finance
                                              • dealt with accounts of monarch aswell as castiles finances
                                            • 1526 Council of the Indies
                                              • Jurisdication over all American issues
                                            • 1526 Council of State
                                              • Advisery body. All matters; foreign policies oversaw work of other councils
                                            • 1480 Royal council of Castile
                                              • highest administrative body interms of internal matters. Supreme court of law
                                            • 1494 Council of Aragon
                                              • judicial matters, highest appeal in the state
                                            • Gattinara
                                      • 1519 elected HRE
                                        • made coretes travel with him (no happy)
                                        • spainish funding
                                        • Sack of Rome 1527. Pope Trapped under Charles controll
                                      • fought to form a government that would solidify Spain
                                        • coronation 1520
                                          • declared he would guarentee the electors abnd princes in all their rights and possessions
                                          • protect them against revolt whether amongst nobility , common people, hostile alliances and leagues.
                                          • place only born Germans in imperial and court offices
                                            • only use German and latin in offical writtings and court offices
                                          • to introduce no foreign armies
                                            • broken 1547 schmalkaldic war
                                              • battle of Muhlberg. Charles v schmalkaldic princes. used spainish troops
                                        • in spain; sept 1517- may 1520, July 1522- July 1529, April 1533-April 1535,dec 1536-1538, JUly 1538-nov 1539, Nov 1558
                                        • 1522 Adrian of Utrecht gave chalres gifts
                                          • Crusada (money
                                          • Patronage
                                          • Mastership
                                          • spain recieved money from Rome
                                        • Reform. Erasmians and Lutherans. Set Catholicism back?
                                          • council of trent 1545:not assembled to talk about Protestants
                                            • Femando de valdes. Inquisitor general agressive. 1559 Index of spanish inquisition and issues all spainards abroad to return
                                              • 1564 Moors no longer in isolation from inquisition
                                          • Alonso de virues. Chaplain to Charles Areested 1533. Charles prtection sent to canaries
                                          • Protestannt issue political
                                            • Luther promoted sola scripture- goes again monarchy ruling
                                            • no unity and appealed to pluratist intentions. Fear due to the formation od schmalkaldic league 1531
                                          • Cisneros. Inquisitor general. Rengent in Castile: Crusades in North Africa. Alcala uni polygot bible
                                            • Adrian of Utrecht 1521 banned Lutheran texts blocked all ports. Pope 1522
                                              • Alfonso de Manrique. Inquisitor general, 'blanket of protection' 1529 fell from favour son contect with Erasmus
                                                • son friends with Luis vives who was an academic in paris didnt return out of fear  (parents conversos)
                                          • Absent
                                          • Abdicated 1556
                                      • death 1516
                                        • Castle and Aragon separated plans to devided tit between charles and Ferdinand (grandsons)
                                          • Charles recongnised as heir
                      • Wanted ferdianand to taker her role but  Joanna was the rightful heir
                      • 1515 Cisneros made a direct appeal to Charles in Burgundy
                        • Cisneros
                          • Granada, baptized 3,000 1499
                          • uni of Alcala 1508
                            • producing Erasmians
                              • promoted independent thinking.
                              • e.g. Alfonso de Manrique educated at Alcala. when inquisitor provided a blanket of protection to Erasmians.
                          • Publication  of Polygot bible 1522
                            • Hebrew, Greek and latin
                          • banned preaching of indulgences
                          • regent in spain till charles arrived
                  • Personal rule
                    • Battle of Toro 1476
                      • Isabella walked bare foot
                    • coronation: Unsheathed sword- no queen consort.
                    • Inquisition answered to crown no appeal to Rome
                    • Peripatatic governemnt. No central gov, always moving (expensive)
                    • Granada epithany 6th jan 1492
                    • patronage . her choice- Rome agrees
                      • Ferdinand 1523 given inperpetuity
                    • death of ISABELLA  1504
                      • persoanl rule collapsed nobility takes control.
                    • Charles not a personal rule monarch. ABSENT
                      • CONTINUITY; personal missing, personal welcome, personal promise.

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