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Germany 1900-14
Who actually ran Germany?
Constitution ­ The set of rules by which a country is run. It is supposed to reflect the values
and traditions of that country. Sometimes a constitution is written; sometimes it is a
collection of accepted traditions that are not written down

How the…

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Command all armed
forces as
within the Empire both in
peace and in war

Chancellor (Kanzler) The chief minister of the Reich The Chancellor, in the Zabern
and normally combined it with the Affair, defended the military
post of Minister President of to the dissatisfaction of the
Prussia. He…

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secretaries to be
The imperial government
was not accountable to it

Institution Strengths Weaknesses
Kaiser (Emperor) He was always to be Kaiser Wilhelm II was
the Prussian King, which a poor decision
reinforced Prussia's maker, his attention
dominant position in the span was short and
new state he did…

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Chancellor Von Bülow's In 1910, he tried to
strengths lay primarily reform to Prussian
in foreign policy voting system which
One of Von was blatantly unfair,
Bülow's aims but when he was in
the face of
to build an
alliance of
opposition, he
conservative dropped his
interests in proposals.…

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Political Parties from 1890 to 1914
Conservative What did they Parts of How they How they
Parties believe? society they worked with worked with
attracted? The Reichstag the Kaiser
Conservatives Supported the Junkers, The were able The Kaiser
Kaiser, landed to gain the could always
discipline and interests, most seats…

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interests of the class and in the
Christian Church middle and Reichstag
against the lower
dominance of middle class
Protestant interests
Social Split: Marxists Working
Democratic argue for classes after
Party revolution and Bismarck's
non-cooperatio Anti-Socialis
n with the t Laws
political system; lapsed in
reformists 1890
argued that…

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Main pressure groups that existed under the Kaiser and explain how and why
pressure groups were influential
These groups were often focused on single issues, but they highlighted the tensions and divisions in

Nationalist Pressure Organisations
There were 3 main groups that pressurised for German colonial expansion and the…

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Bismarck's fall exacerbated the situation as the new Chancellors lacked the authority to
stand up against the military chiefs, as they had the sympathy of the Emperor. The lack of
civil control over the military had important consequences for domestic and international
policies; most significantly the Schlieffen Plan in 1905.…

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Significance of German Industrial Production from 1800s-1915
From the 1800s there had been a technological revolution in the new industries of steel,
engineering and chemicals. It was Germany that led the way in many of these new industries.

Steel. Due to the new process of steel manufacturing, Germany took advantage…

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Geographical advantages included major navigable rivers e.g. Rhine and the Elbe, and easy
access to the Danube. The broad flat northern plain was well suited to the construction of
its excellent railway system.

Short-term Causes of German Success
Germany had the best elementary education system in the world,…


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