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The crimenean war revealed how deep seated Russian's problems were. Russia was seen
to be hopelessly backward.

The end of serfdom

For those wanting change,Russia got off to a promising start. Alexander immediately stopped
all army recruitment and eased censorship. He also released all those Decembrists in prison
or in…

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The state peasents received better treatment but had to wait a few more years
for their freedom.

The household serfs came out worst of all, they received no land just their

Emancipation was both praised and critized. Because of the shortcomings of the
emancipation deal there was civil unrest…

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were their responsibility. However they did provide new oppurtunities for many people who
had not been involved in political life before.

Reform of the law

Before the reforms the poor chances of justice were indeed remote. The acussed were
guilty unless proven innocent. There were no juries or lawyers in…

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higher education and the government service. Some Jews were allowed to settle out outside
the pale.

The end of reforms

The reforms made under Alexander II were the most reaching made since peter the great.
However they nearly stopped as reforming ministers were placed with more conservative
figures in the…

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in exile as many 150,000 went to Siberia. Journey to Siberia was usually on foot and in leg

The political trials

The government set up a special department of the senate to try political cases and in
1877 there was a number of prominent trials. The trial of 50…

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Further economic reforms were enacted by the new finance minister Nikolay
Bunge. The included the abolition of salt tax in 1881 and in 1886 the poll tax. In
1883 he created the peasent land banks. Peasant land banks allowed peasants to
borrow money at relatively cheap rates to allow the…

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in normal years but this was more drastic situation. It was called the "defining event
of the decade". It was made worse by the outbreak of cholera and typhus the
following year.

The government was partly responsible for the severity of the famine. In order to
raise much needed revenue…

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The workers and new born peasents in cities were susceptible to revolutionary
groups. Literacy was much higher in the towns and the country leaving workers
open to many new influences.

Government finances

Towards AlexanderIII reign Russia was plunged into another war with Turkey. As
in 18541855 the government was forced…

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Despite this the intelligentsia had little in common with the peasents or the workers,
but were equally ignored by the political establishment. (They were denied in the
political system). Which pushed them towards the radical movement. The refusal of
both Alexander,Alexander III and Nicholas II to sacrifice any of their…

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Witte neglected other parts of the industry, agriculture, engineering and

Although the railway system expanded it was still very costly and not as
impressive as western Europe.


The Tsar promoted everything Russian to the language, church, money in order to
unify the empire. Making other nationals learn the…


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