Russian history

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  • Created on: 06-06-12 18:51
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The provisional government
lack of authority
The government had not been elected. The election of the Russian politics might have provided
Russia with a strong legitimate government. The government promised eletions but delayed them
because there was no accurate electoral register. Delaying elections was an attempt to hold on to
The Bolsheviks took advantage of the revolution.
"peace,bread,land was the slogan which Lenin used to highlight the three problems most important
to the mass of Russian people.
On October 26 the Bolsheviks controlled majority of cities except for Petrograd. The Bolsheviks
expected the October Revolution to mark the start of a new age. As a result they abandoned the
title "ministers" for the proletarian "people's commissars". The cabinet became sovnarkom, the
soviet of people commissars. Lenin believed only the Bolsheviks were capable of building this new
world and he refused to invite other socialist parties into his government. Marx said that the
revolution would be followed by the "dictatorship of the ploleriat". Lenin believed he had an
obligation to establish the dictatorship. Lenin believed the Russian revolution had to succeed to
inspire the wider revolutionary movement in Europe. However Lenin was pressured by his party to
allow SR's to join the government.
Control of the army was vital to the survival of the government. The army had already been
weakened by the war and the Bolsheviks appealed to the soldiers as they had promised a quick end
to the war. Lenin signed a peace armistice with the German forces. The red army did not exist in
March 1918. But in 1920 it had 5 million members as they had introduced conscription into the areas
they controlled
The civil war the reds fought with the white who were conservatives. The Greens were peasants
who resented Bolshevik policies.
December 1917 Sovnarkom set up its own secret police Cheka. Cheka had 120 employees by 1918.
By 1921 this had risen to 143,000. They were not restricted by law,executed of enemies to the
state without trials. In 1918 alone it has been estimated that the Cheka killed 50,000 people.The first
labour camps were set up to contain so called prisoners.
The red terror

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The Bolsheviks imposed strict controls within their areas. Suspects were arrested and harshly dealt
with. The Cheka ensured discipline, some sources say 50,000 was shot in 1918 alone. It was not
unknown for Cheka squads to follow unreliable forces into battle to shoot any deserters
How did Bolsheviks the government try to change Russia
Decreees passed on during the first few weeks after the October revolution included:
1) The decree on peace.…read more

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State capitalism was introduced after the October Revolution to co-ordinate and plan the economy.
The sovnorkom set up vesenkha the supreme council of national economy. This body nationalisd the
banks, shipping ,railways and some larger factories.
War communism 1918-1921
Government decided to take a direct control of economic life . In June 1918 a decree nationalized all
industries. All production was to be concentrated on the war . Factory committees lost the ability to
manage their own workers instead party officials took over this role.…read more

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End of recquisitioning of grain.
Pay of peasants of a tax to government.
Reintroduced of a free market in which peasents were able to sell extra surplus.
The legalisation of small business
Heavy industry,transport, banking were to remain under state control.
He new policy NEP eventually put an end to armed resistance in the countryside. Farmers and okers
returned work, immediate ciris lifted. Better weather and grain donated by Americans also donated
by American also helped to ensure better harvests in 1922 and 1923.…read more

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When Lenin died, Russia was a one party state the communist party ruled without challenge. The
communist government was supposed to be a dictatorship of the proletariat, however by the end of
the civil war there was no plotetariat.
Party membership
Before 1917 middle class had led the 10,000 Bolsheviks. By 1924 the party was much changed. It
had grown to 472,000 on Lenin's death. However many of the new recruits were not workers but
bureaucrats and managers.…read more

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Poorer peasents were asked to point out those kulak families hoarding grain. They were offered a
reward of 25% of any grain confiscated. This produced some of the grain needed for the cities, but
was not a permanent solution to the problems.
Stage three: Forced collectivization
In Summer 1929 the collective farm centre was set up. Factory workers were sent into the villages to
organise the peasants into collective farms .…read more

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If they stole from the fields they were punished. Some collective
farms collapsed because there was no one left to work for them.
Officially the faminine was denied it was made a punishable offence to refer to it. The state took
measures to ensure to refer to it. The state took several measures to ensure that no starving
peasents were able to buy train tickets to the cities.…read more

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Why did the party purge its members
Major purge of party members happened in 1921, when the civil war had been won. A quarter of
party members were expelled at this time. Purges were aimed to rid the party of the undesirables,
lazy members, drunks ect. However a major risen was that Stalin used purging to rid himself of critcs,
potential rivals and opposition.
Attacks on Kulaks and nepmen occurred in 1928, during this period the class war was sharpened.…read more

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Why did the terror happen?
The terror had many different aspects. The industrial trials, the political trials, the cleansing of the
party . A way for Stalin to establish a personal dictatorship and remove threat. Stalin was simply
solving problems that Lenin had begun
According to Stalin Russia needed another revolution to transform Russia into the preferred socialist
state. He called this the great turn, he believed that by changing the material conditions of ordinary
Russians he would change the way they thought and behaved.…read more

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Lots of stadium were built. Teams were supported through government funds. Chess was made
compulsory in Russian schools, gymnasts got state and coaching support. Russia dominated the world
chess scene.
The 5 year plan
Russia was 50 years behind the West . "we must catch up with the west in 10 years or they will
destroy us". After two year five plan they would have caught up with the west . If the population
didn't meet the targets they would be in danger.…read more


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