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Alexander II (1855-1881)

Reforms of the army
The secret police was called the third section.
Education reforms.
Reduced censorship, political prisoner's such as the Decembrists set free.
Emancipation of the serfs.
Reforms of the law.(juries introduced).

The Problems facing the new Tsar

The Crimean War, especially the capture of…

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Zemstvos were created in 1864. Zemstvos were local government responsible for public health,
prisons, roads, agriculture, the relief of famine and to some areas of education. In towns and cities
Dumas were set up with similar responsibilities but only those who paid taxes or were on proper
register were granted…

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For those wanting change, the reign got off to a promising start. Alexander immediately stopped all
army recruitment and eased censorship. He also released all those Decembrists still in prison or exile
who had tried to overthrow his father in 1825. A similar amnesty was given to those Poles who…

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Conclusion of Alexander II's Reforms The reforms made under Alexander II were the most reaching
made since peter the great. However they could not have worked because massive unrest occurred
and there was a huge wave of opposition. Financial policies saw little reform. The poll tax which the
gentry were…

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the future lay in the hands of the peasants and went into the countryside to share the lives of the
peasants, win their respect and rouse them into action. Their mission ended in abject failure.

The police reacted with waves of arrests in Moscow and St. Petersburg. The students in…

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War brought financial crisis and the collapse of the rouble. It was a major factor in the
end of the so called free trade in Russia's economic development. Yet again this war
showed Russia's backwardness, this time there was no major series of reforms.

Alexander III (1881-1894)

Tsar Alexander III…

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According to Professor Hutchinson, this was `the defining event of the decade'. It was made worse
by the inevitable outbreak of cholera and typhus the following year.

The government was responsible for the severity for the famine, or so many believed. In an effort to
raise much needed revenue, the…

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restored but peasant independence was reduced. University education was restricted and
religious tolerance eroded.

The Okhrana became a much more important element in Russian life than it had done before. The
bureaucracy, police and army were dedicated to enforcing religious, racial and national

Economic growth

The economy was already…

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As cities grew there was growth in the middle classes. The numbers of banks and other financial
institutions mushroomed. The zemstva helped as they employed teachers, doctors ect. As the
work of the zemstva expanded so did the expectations of the intelligentsia for wider
consultation at a national level.

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production took place away from large factories in small workshops in the countryside and the
towns. When food was scarce during the first world war many workers went back to the village.

Industry depended hugely on state intervention and orders especially the railways and armaments
industry. The economy before the…


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