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Alexaneder II (1855-1881)

Reforms of the army
The secret police was called the third section.
Education reforms.
Reduced censorhip, political prisoner's such as the Decembrists set free.
Emancipation of the serfs.
Reforms of the law.(juries introduced).

The Problems facing the new Tsar

The Crimean War, especially the capture of…

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conscription if medically fit. The length of service for conscripts was reduced to six
years followed by nine years in the reserve and five in the milita.

The military reserve was as a result raised from 210,000 to 553,000 by 1870 the
training and discipline of soldiers was made both…

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between 2 and 3 million learned the basics of reading and writing in the armed forces.
Before in the 1800 there was only one universities but Alexander tried expanded them.

Of all the groups in Russia, the Jews had fared the worst at the hands of the Russians.
However Alexander…

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Defeat in the Crimea had shown that the army needed urgent reforms. This too
was difficult as long as serfdom survived, for serfs serving 25 years in the ranks
formed the mass of soldiers.

Abolition was the only way to stop the rising number of peasant revolts. There had

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unrest occurred and there was a huge wave of opposition. Financial policies saw little
reform. The poll tax which the gentry were exempt remained a heavy burden on the peasants. It
increased by 80% over Alexander's reign. Russia had problems before the war but
Alexander only focused on effects from…

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nihilist protagonist, Bazarov, inspired many young Russian members of the
intelligentsia or even nobility to rebel against social convention and some even to
turn to revolutionary politics.

The Narodniks ­ In the 1870s some idealistic young members of the gentry and
intelligentsia were still determined to change the political system.…

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considered harmful'. In a way this measure pushed opposition into the hands of

In 1881 the Peoples Will achieved their main aim ­ they assassinated the Tsar as he
returned from military manoeuvres on 1st March.The people's will were to be executed
by Alexander III.

1. Ownership of the…

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Abolished poll and salt tax.

Regulated working conditions in 1882 working hours were reduced for women and

1891-92: The worst famine of 19th century.

Restored autocracy by use of repressive measures and reforms.

Liberal measures

Further economic reforms were enacted by the new finance minister Nikolay Bunge.
The included…

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The government was responsible for the severity for the famine, or so many believed.
In an effort to raise much needed revenue, the government had heavily taxed
consumer goods. To afford what they needed, the peasants were forced to sell more
and more grain, leaving them with no reserves of…

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given supervision over the correctness and legality of zemstvo institutions by a
new state in 1890.

Lower class children were effectively banned from secondary education

More repression.

There was an increase in secret trials for political offences. Voting rights were also
reduced from 13,000 leaving only 7,000. Although he repealed…


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