Unit 5 COASTAL CONFLICT AND CHANGE

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  • Created by: Priya
  • Created on: 01-01-14 01:22
What is the 'Coastal Zone'?
The zone between the island and sea. Coasts are alwayes changing
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What are the advantages of living by the coast?
Fish, Good agricultural land found next to the coast, Access for trade, Tourism opportunities, Recreation
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What does the term 'EROSION' from?
The process of wearing the cliffs away
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What are the 4 coastal processes?
HYDRAULIC ACTION, ABRASION, ATTRITION
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What is meant by the term 'Hydraulic action'?
The power of water/waves forced into cracks and forcing the rocks apart
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What is meant by the term 'Abrasion'?
Rocks are hurled against the cliff. They scour away like sandpaper
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What is meant by the term 'Attrition'?
Two rocks crash into each other and break down into smaller pieces
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What are the different types of rocks?
Some rocks are very resistant to erosion e.g granite, Some rocks are least resistant e.g clays and will erode quickly
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Name the main 'Coastal Landforms'?
Wave Cut Notch, Caves, Arches, Stacks and Stumps,
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What is meant by ROCK STRUCTURE?
The way rock types are arranged. Usually in layers (Strata)
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What are the two types of coasts?
CONCORDANT coastline - The rock type is the same along the whole coastline DISCORDANT coast - The rock is the same along the whole coastline
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How do waves break?
in sea wind creates wave shape - within waves water particles move in a circular movement and returns to the start - it is only energy moving forward not water - when wave reaches shallow, wave becomes an ellipse shape until its so heavy it breaks.
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What is a SWASH?
When the waves come up the beach in the direction of the prevailing wind
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What is a BACKWASH?
When the waves go back down the beach at right angles due to gravity
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What are constructive waves?
Small, Long wavelengths, low amplitudes, strong swash so transport sand up the beach and deposit it - builds up beach
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What are destructive waves?
Taller, closer together, plunging waves,
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What is meant by the term 'sediment'?
Tiny clay particles, sand, pebbles, boulders
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Describe the process of 'Long shift drift'?
The particles of sand or shingle are transported along the beach in a zig zag movement, carried by the swash and backwash, As the prevailing wind is usually in the same direction so LSD usually too .
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Desrcribe what a spit is?
At a corner in the coastline LSD continues to deposit out to the sea forming a neck of sand and shingle
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What is a 'Tombola'?
A tombola is where the sediment joins the mainland to an island. A bar joins two sections of mainland
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How are spring waves created?
The gravity of the moon creates tides. Twise a day we have high tides which gives sea levels, a few times a year we have 'spring tides' which are very high,
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How are storm surges created?
If a spring tide and low air pressure conside = a STORM SURGE = huge waves flooding the coast,
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How can Global warming make depressions more powerful to make storm surges more common?
Higher sea levels and more storms would cause faster erosion rates, Current sea defenses would be useless and we would have to spend a lot of money on new ones
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Why do cliffs collapse? (MARINE PROCESSES)
MARINE sea processes = base of cliff is eroded by hydraulic action/abrasion
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Why do cliffs collapse? (SUB ARIAL PROCESSES)
weathering/mass movements - weathering (breakdown of rocks where they are) - freeze thaw, chemical. Mass movements (movements of materials down slope) -> heavy rain saturates the rock.The water infiltrates and adds weight to the cliff, making it unst
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Why do cliffs collapse? (HUMAN ACTIONS)
building on the top of the cliff - heavy load pushes down on the cliff
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How does a RATIONAL SLIDE occur?
During a big storm heavy rain saturates permeable rock. There is erosion by the sea a swell -> a chunk of cliff gives way and slides down the cliff as a ROTATIONAL SLIDE
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What are the two coastal management ways?
Hard engineering - traditional, building structures, costly, ugly. Soft engineering - working with nature. Cheaper less intrusive
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Describe the use of 'Sea Walls'?
Reflect the waves back out to sea, Costly, Makes it hard to access the beach, The wall itself erodes = high maintenance costs
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Describe the use of 'Groynes'? 1
Trap and stop the long shore drift form moving along. Builds up a nice big sandy beach. This is the best form of protection against erosion - the wave moves around every grain of sand, taking lots of energy out of the wave (energy is dissipated)
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Describe the use of 'Groynes'? 2
Good for tourism, Has a negative impact down the coast which is starved of sediment - here the beach becomes smaller and offers less protection so erosion rates increase greatly. This causes conflict
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Describe the use 'Rock Armour/Rip Rap'?
Big boulders placed at the base of the cliff - dissipate the energy of the waves, looks natural, Makes access to the beach difficult, Can be hard to transport the boulders into position
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What are 2 for/against arguments of HARD ENGINEERING?
FOR - Locals want had engineering - it looks like something serious is being done to protect them, Local businesses e.g caravan parks, hotels AGAINST - Local taxpayers who don't live at the coast, Environmentalists - worry about habitats being dest
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MODERN MANAGEMENT - What is Hollistic Management?
managing the whole stretch of coast and not just one place. Holistic management takes into account: The needs of different groups of people, Economic costs/benefits, The environment of land/sea
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What does the term ICZM mean?
Integrated Coastal Zone Management
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What does the term SMP mean?
Shoreline Management Plans - for long stretches of coast. This should stop one place building groynes if it will effect down the coast
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What are 2 council choices of how to manage the coast? 1
HOLD THE LINE: Use defenses to stop erosion and keep the coast where it is (expensive) ADVANCE THE LINE: move the coast further into the sea (Very expensive)
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What are 2 council choices of how to manage the coast? 2
STRATEGIC RETREAT: Gradually let the coast erode and move people/businesses away as necessary. Compensation has to be paid DO NOTHING: Let nature take its course
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Card 2

Front

What are the advantages of living by the coast?

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Fish, Good agricultural land found next to the coast, Access for trade, Tourism opportunities, Recreation

Card 3

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What does the term 'EROSION' from?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

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What are the 4 coastal processes?

Back

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Card 5

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What is meant by the term 'Hydraulic action'?

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