Geography, Dynamic planet

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Tectonic plates

Why do tectonic plates move?

  • Earths interior is made up of a layered structure
  • Core generates heat, causing a convection current, moving the plates and generating the Earths' magnetic field

Different types of plate boundaries-

  • Conservative
  • Constructive
  • Destructive

All the above can cause volcanoes and earthquakes

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Topic 2: Changing Climates

How and why has climates changed in the past?

Changed in the past due to natural causes:

  • Ice ages- Quaternary period and UK climate since roman times
  • Asteroid collisions
  • Orbital changes
  • Volcanic activity
  • Changes in solar output

Natural climate change has affected people and the environment

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2.2- Challanges our future climate might challange

Climate change in the UK is happening due to human activity

Human activity is releasing methane and carbon dioxide into the atmosphere- adding to the greenhouse effect

Future climates are uncertain but are likely to present us with major economic and environmental clallanges to the Uk, and especially to developig countries

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Topic 3: Battle of the Biosphere 3.1

The distribution of global biomes reflect climate as well as localised factors

Eco-system= A unit made up of living things and their non-living environment, e.g. a pond, a forest, a desert, etc

Biome= A very large ecosystem, e.g.a rainforest or hot deserts

 

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3.1, battle of the biosphere

Distribution due to temperature and precipitation-

  • Precipitation happens at low-pressure belts. Happens along the equator and at mid latitude points, such as the UK. This forms forests
  • In polar and dessert areas, High-pressure belts occur- causing dry conditions
  • Temperature decreases as you move further from the equator. As lattitude decreases, so does temperature
  • In polar areas, sun rays are less concentrated do there is a lack of heat, and vegetation doesn't grow well due to light limitations

Local factors

  • Altitude: every 100m, the temperature drops by 1 degree celcius
  • Soil: how nutrient-rich the soil is
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3.1 battle of the biosphere

Biosphere acts as a 'life-support system' and produces a wide range of goods

The biosphere:

  • regulates the composition of the atmosphere,
  • maintains soil health
  • Influences the hydraulic system

Provides humans with:

  • Raw materials
  • Medicines
  • Food
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3.2- Humans affecting the biosphere

The biosphere is being degraded by human actions:

  • Destruction of rainforests
  • Deforestation for timber
  • Mining
  • Conservation of agricultural land

Impacts of climate change on the rainforests:

  • Transpiration is reduced and evapouration is increased- leading to a drier climate
  • Deforestation leads to global warming because trees use up carbon dioxide
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4.1- Water World- Why water is important to our pl

The hydrological cycle regulates water supply and links the atmosphere, lithosphere and biosphere

How the hydrological system works:

It's a system of interlinked stores and transfers, including the process of evapouration, condensation, precipitation and run-off

Changes to the hydrolaugical systems affect both humans and the eco-system

  • Rainfall reliability
  • Groundwater levels
  • Dry, arid area's
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4.2- How water resources can be managed sustainabl

There are many threats to the hydrological system such as:

  • human activity: Sewage disposal
  • human activity: Industrial pollution
  • human activity: Intensive agriculture

There are a range of strategies, at a variety of scales, designed to manage water resources more sustainably using different levels of technology.

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5.1 Costal change and conflict

Geological structure and land type have a major influence on costal development and landforms.

Marine processes and sub- aerial processes, mass movement and climate change are also greatly important.

Sub aerial processes shape land by weathering and mass movement

Mass movement occur on slopes under different conditions

  • Concequences of climate change on marine ersoion and deposition include an increased:
  • frequency of storms
  • rising sea levels
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5.2 How the coastal conflict can be managed

Physical processes lead to costal change and retreat, which threatens people and property and generates condlict views

There are a range of costal management options from the traditional hard engineering and more holistic approaches

'Do nothing'- Intergrated Costal Zone Management (ICZM)

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8.1, Extreme Environments, Challanges of Extreme C

Extreme climates: Hot arid and cold polar- both fragile environments

  • Hot arid flora and fauna:
  • Moss: survives by growing close to the ground- can't get blown over by strong winds

People have adapted to living in these conditions in many ways

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8.2, Extreme Environments, How is the environment

Extreme environments are under threat in many ways, such as climate change

  • Threats to people in natural systems:
  •  
  • Out- migration- becase of its limited economic oppertunities
  • Cultural dilution through tourism
  • Pollution through land exploitation
  • Land degradation through poor land management
  • Climate change can threaten natural systems through:
  • Permafrost
  • Loss of sea ice
  • Desertification
  • Species migration
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