Unit 1: Section 1: The Challenges to the Tsarist State, 1881-1906

When were the serfs emancipated?
1861
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When was Alexander II assassinated? By who?
1881; radical group called 'People's Will'
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When was the April Manifesto? What did it say?
April 1881; declared absolute political power resided in Tsar.
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What was the 'Statute of State Security' law?
Established govt controlled courts to try political opponents.
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How many major newspapers were banned 1882-1889?
14
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When was the failed assassination of Alexander III?
1887
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What were introduced in 1889?
Land Captains; from landed classes to help rule Russia.
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Who become members of the Zemstva in 1890?
Land Captains
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What did the government have the right to do after 1890?
Choose juries in court cases.
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When did Russian become the official language of the Empire?
1885
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When did Nikolai Bunge become finance minister?
1881
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What did Bunge do in 1882?
Reduced the amount of tax paid by peasants & introduced Peasants' Land Bank.
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What did the Peasants' Land Bank do?
Provide financial support to peasants to allow them to increase the size of their farms.
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When did Bunge resign?
1887
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Who succeeded Bunge?
Ivan Vyshnegradsky
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What did Vyshnegradsky introduce?
Incentives for peasants to move to Siberia, and encouraged foreign countries to invest in Russia.
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When did Russia experience a severe famine?
1891-92
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How many people died in the famine of 1891-92?
Between 1.5 and 2 million.
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What was implemented in 1891?
Introduction of tariffs to encourage the domestic buying of Russian goods.
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When was the Great Spurt?
1892-1903
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What reforms did Witte introduce? (5 points)
Emphasis on coal, steel and iron; foreign loans obtained; taxes on peasants increased; Trans-Siberian railway; restricting working hours.
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When did Witte introduce laws to limit the working day? How many hours was it?
1897; 11.5 hours.
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How much did industrial growth increase by each year in the 1890s?
8%
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How much foreign investment did Russia receive between 1897 and 1900?
144 million roubles.
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By what year was the Trans-Siberian railway almost completed?
1903
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What was the population of St Petersburg in 1890 and 1914?
1890; 1 million, 1914; 2 million.
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By 1913 what percentage of national income came from industry?
20%
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By 1913 what percentage of the population lived in towns?
18%
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How much money did Russia owe in 1914?
8 billion roubles.
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When did Nicholas II come to power?
1894
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Who were the 'Black Hundreds'?
People who supported Russian nationalism and anti-Semitism; supported Tsarist system of government & organised marches in support of Tsar.
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When was the Social Democratic Party established?
1898
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When did the Social Democrat Party split?
1903
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What did the Bolsheviks believe?
That revolution could only be brought about by a small, secretive, elite group of dedicated revolutionaries.
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What did the Mensheviks believe?
That a revolution should be carried out by a mass party which was open to the whole working class?
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Who did the Socialist Revolutionaries focus on attracting the support of?
The peasants.
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Which two Liberal groups emerged in 1905?
Octobrists & Kadets
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What did the Kadets want?
Further political reforms after 1905.
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Why were the Octobrists different to the Kadets?
They fully accepted the reforms proposed in the October Manifesto.
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What was the population of Russia in 1885?
98 million.
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What was the population of Russia in 1905?
125 million.
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Who was assassinated in 1905 by a member of the Socialist Revolutionaries?
Grand Duke Sergei, the Tsar's uncle.
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What happened in April 1904?
Conservative Minister of the Interior replaced by the more Liberal Svyatopolk-Mirsky.
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Who set up the 'Union of Liberation'? What did it do?
Pyotr Struve, sought more political freedoms.
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When were the Russians forced to surrender Port Arthur?
January 1905
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Which fleet sailed around the world to confront the Japanese navy?
Russian Baltic fleet.
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What battle occurred in May 1905? What happened?
Battle of Tsushima; Russian defeat.
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What did workers in St Petersburg demand in January 1905?
8 hour working day and an elected assembly.
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What did Father Gapon lead? When?
9th January; a peaceful march to the Winter Palace to present a petition to the Tsar.
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How many people marched to the Winter Palace?
150,000.
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How many people were killed on Bloody Sunday?
Over 200.
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How many workers went on strike in February 1905? Why?
400,000 as a consequence of the massacre.
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What famous mutiny occurred as a result of Bloody Sunday?
June; crew of battleship Potemkin killed some of their officers, took control of the ship and bombarded the Black Sea port of Odessa.
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By the end of 1905, how many workers had been on strike?
Over 2.7 million.
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How many factories did the St Petersburg Soviet represent?
96
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When was the St Petersburg Soviet closed down? By who?
December 1905 by Tsarist troops.
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What occurred on 5th December?
General strike in Moscow.
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What happened by 7th December?
General strike had become an armed uprising.
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How many people were killed in the armed Moscow uprising?
1000
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When was the revolution over by?
18th December
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What did Witte persuade the Tsarist government to do in October?
Issue the October Manifesto, which promised various political reforms.
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What was the 'Union of Russian People'?
New political group linked to Black Hundreds, set up by Tsar; attacked and killed those who supported reform in the countryside and within cities.
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When were opposition leaders arrested?
December 1905.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

When was Alexander II assassinated? By who?

Back

1881; radical group called 'People's Will'

Card 3

Front

When was the April Manifesto? What did it say?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What was the 'Statute of State Security' law?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

How many major newspapers were banned 1882-1889?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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