Russian History

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  • Created by: Meg
  • Created on: 24-03-13 16:36

Russia in 1881

1881-1905= political repression

Tsars supressed groups, Socialist Revolutionaries and Social Democrats, were demaniding reform

Major Economic Changes as Russia underwent rapid industrialisation.

Modernisation wasn't very popular with ordianry people

1905 saw Revolution and attack on Tsar

Revolutiom ended with Nicholas II October Manifesto, promising concessions.

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Key Date Russia 1881-1905

  • 1881-Alexander III becomes Tsar
  • 1889-Land Captains created
  • 1891-Major Famine
  • 1894 Nicholas II becomes Tsar
  • 1898-Social Democratic Party formed
  • 1901-Social Revolutionary Party formed
  • 1904-Russo-Japanese War began
  • Jan 1905- Bloody Sunday- start of 1905 Revolution
  • Oct 1905-Tsar agreed to October Manifesto
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Key People and Key Terms 1881-1905

Ivan Vyshnegradsky- Finance Minister, 1887-1892

Sergei Witte- Finance Minister, 1892-1903

Constantine Pobedonostsev- Alexander III and Nicholas II's tutor

Tsarism- form of gov. ran by Tsar

Autocracy- 1 person rules with absolute power

Okhrana- Russian Secret Police

Marxism- Set of theories by Karl Marx

Constituional Gov- gov based on set of agreed rules

Redemption Payment- money owed to gov. by peasants for their land

Duma- Russian parliament

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Nationality, Autocracy, Orthodoxy


  • Promoted Russification- making Russia more Russian
  • 1885 Russian became official language, Public office closed to people who couldnt speak it fluently
  • Rights of Russian majority put before minority groups
  • Alexander III didn't distinguish between minority groups who were traditionally loyal to the Tsar
  • Increased opposition to Tsarism from many different sections of society


  • Alexander III declared determined to keep up tradition of Tsarist autocracy
  • 1889 elected Justices of the Peace replaced by Land Captain-aristocracts
  • Land Captains overrule the zemstva and charge peasant farmers with minor offences
  • Peasents felt Land Captains treated them badly
  • 1890 Tsar restricted right to vote for zemstva in countryside and 1892 right to vote for dumas in town restricted in similar way. Gave landed gentry more power.


  • Russian Orthodox Church rights championed above other beliefs
  • Primary schools under Church control





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Alexander III

Jews suffered under Russification

They were not allowed to become doctors or lawyers and very few addmited to uni

Organised pogroms carried out on Jews and increased under Russification. Over 200.

Jews left the country to Western Europe and USA, but others formed radical organisation called Bund, working with opposition parties in year before 1917.

Summary of Alexander IIIs reign: 

  • Provided firm leadership and clear direction for gov
  • Bought back strong autocratic power, underpinned by Church, aristocracy and army
  • Still had opposition but weakened and driven underground
  • Found it difficult to tackle problems emerging rapidly industrialising country
  • Left legacy of repression and autocracy, contiuned by Nicholas II
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Economic Changes 1881-1914

1881 Economy still based on Agriculture
Emancipation of serfs didn't cahnge the Russian economy much over next 20 years:

  • continued being dependent on agriculutal production, especially grain
  • Very few Russians worked in industy- over 80% population lived in countryside
  • Russian cities very small by European standards. Moscow population udner a million

Tsars modernised Russia through Industrialisation.

  • Russians population rapidly growing. Doubled between 1881 and 1914, leading to overpopulation of countryside and put pressure on landholdings.
  • Russia wanted to maintain its status as great power, meaning Russia had to industrialise to compete with other great powers like Germany/Britain.
  • Alexander III and Nicholas II decided to take direct action to force industrialisation 


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3 Key Industrialisers

  • Nicolai Bunge (1881-1887)- created Peasant's Land Bank intending to encourage peasants to expand landholdings.
    However it was too small to be effective.
  •  Ivan Vyshnegradsky (1887-1892)- Raise money for industrialistaion, he encouraged forgein investment and increased taxes. Foreigners enticed to invest with incentives helping expansion of small railway network and growth of heavy industry in Ukraine and oil production in Baku. Domestic industries were protected with high tariffs to boost consumer demand
    But he exported lots of grain to finance his policies which contiuned despite major famne in 1891. Sacked in 1892.
  • Segei Witte (1892-1903)- Most important. Industrial growth in other countries had been driven by large middle class which didn't exist in Russia, but in absent he developed a policy of state intervention in Russian eceonmy. 
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Sergei Witte


  • Trans-Siberian Railway started in 1891. Opened up eastern empire and advanced growth of new towns and cities.
  • Network of railways planned for western Russia to link new industrial centres.
  • New railway linked oil refineries of Baku to Black Sea port of Batum
  • Helped stimulate growth of iron and coal industries

Foreign Investment:

  • 1897 put rouble on gold standard guarenteeing currency's value.
  • Encouraged western countries to invest heavily in Russian industry
  • Forgein investment increased from roughly 200 million rubles 1890 to approx 900 million rubles in 1900.


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Pros and Cons of Wittes Policies


  • Heavy industry saw massive increases in production (coal and iron)
  • Output from Baku oil refineries increased tenfold between 1883 and 1900
  • Economy grew rapidly by 8% a year 
  • Growth briefly started for few years


  • Trans-Siberian Railway built to encourage migration to areas where workers were needed. But 1914 only partially finished and didn't increase migration by much
  • Witte raised taxes to provide money for industrial developments
  • Taxes squeezed peasants making them less likely to spend consumer goods
  • Government ran up enormous debts
  • State control of industry meant that middle class grew slowly in years before 1914
  • Witte didn't improve state of agriculture industry, even though taxes on peasants accounted for over 80% of gov. income.
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Opposition to Tsarism

Industrialisation was Good for Economy but not People

  • Still paying redemption payments 
  • Farmed smaller landholdings than they'd had before emancipation-poor soil
  • Farming practices hadn't evolved much since Middle Ages
  • Couldn't leave their village without mir's permission-still not free
  • Gap between rich and poor peasants grw. Kulaks gained more land and ran local businesses.
  • Migrated to towns to earn extra money where weren't needed for sowing or harvesting.
    Urban Workers:
  • Earned barely enough to survive from one week to next
  • Factory hours weren't regulated by state until introduction an 11.5 hour working day 1897- law ignored
  • Factories ment to be regularly inspected but safety rules weren't followed
  • Rapid growth of towns meant workers lived in overcrowded and insanitart tenements.
  • Health and Education poor and life expectancy was udner 30 years.
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Social Unrest


  • Unrest grew as their needs were put aside the need to industrialise
  • Peasants resented the higher taxes and bitter about lack of government support during famines.
  • Inudstrial labourers suffered the most under Witte's industrialisation of Russia
  • They weren't allowed to form trade unions and there were no legal political parties to represent their needs.
  • Although town dwellers only accounted for 20% of population, they became increasingly radical force.
    Middle-Class Reformists formed the Liberals
  • Economic reforms led to growth of new, educated middle class. Many of politically active members of class became liberals.
  • Weren't completely opposed to Tsarism but wanted autocracy of Tsars to be replcaed with constitutional gov.
  • 1903 Liberals formed League of Liberation, wanting shorter working days, more land for peasants and elected parliament. 
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Social Revolutionary and Social Democrats

Revolutionary Socialists:

  • SRs grew out of earlier groups-Populists. Believed revolution would begin in countryside. Tried unsuccessfully to convert peasants into revolutionaries.
  • 1901 Populist groups joined to form Socialist Revolutionary Party, aiming to:
  • Redistribute land to peasants
  • Improve living and working conditions in towns
  • Overthrow Tsarism by force.
  • SRs used terrorism to advance political aims. Between 1901-1905 SR terrorists assassinated several leading politicans, including Tsar's uncle.

Social Democrats were Marxists:

  • 1898 brought together number of Marxist groups to form Russian Social Democratic Wokers' Party later forming into Bolsheviks and Mensheviks
  • Okhrana kept close eye on SDs as Tsar feared Marxism due to revolutionary principles.
  • 1899 leading members arresent, including Lenin-exiled to Syberia

Opposition didn't get far-too small and ineffective to achieve aims. Major divisions making them less effective. Political parties face constant harassment and violence.

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1905 Revolution

Long-term Causes:

  • Rapidly growing towns and cities didn't have good sanitation or water supplies
  • Huge pressures on food supplies and famine was common
  • High taxes and redemption payments left peasants v.poor and desperate for land.
  • Political parties growing, despite efforts by Okhrana to suppress them.
  • Nicholas II remained autocratic.

Short-term Causes:

  • 1904 Russia and Japan at war. Russia humiliating defeats-Port Arthur Jan 1905.
  • Bloody Sunday shocked many Russians and badly damaged Tsar's authority and prestige.

Bloody Sunday:

  • Sunday 9th Jan 1905  Father Gapon led peaceful march to Winter Palace in St. P to present petition to Tsar. 150000 workers attended
  • Petition to: end war, fair wages and working hours, election for national Parliament
  • Soldiers opened fire killing hundreds of unarmed people.
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Bloody Sunday

One month after, half a million workers went on strike in protest at massacre. 2.7 million by end of 1905.
Stikes affected railways, food was not delievered to towns and cities.
Peasants took opportunuity to revolt illegally taking land from landowners
Jly 1905, All-Russian Peasants' Union met Moscow but struggled to organise peasants at national level. Had similar aims to Socialist Revolutionaries.
National minorites engaged widespread protests. Most of these took place in western part of empire, also serious disturbances in Armenia.
St.Petersburg, a council elected by factory workers. St.Petersburg Soviet organised strikes and demonstrations. Soviet dominated by Mensheviks, including Trotsky.

Army morale dented by loss of Russian Baltic fleet at Battle of Tsushima
June 1905, crew of Battleship Potemkin mutined. Killed their officers and bombarded the port of Odessa. 

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October Manifesto

Nicholas II had to make Concessions to Keep Control:
August- announced formation of elected Duma BUT had no power to pass laws, only advise Tsar which pleased no one. October strikes brought Russia to standstill.
Witte proposed new concessions, which Tsar reluctantly agreed to. October 17th, Nicholas published October Manifesto.
Manifesto Promised:
Freedom of speech, religion and free press.
Elected Duma which had actual authority. Laws issued by Tsar needed approval of Duma.
Spontaneous demonstrations in favour of Tsar held in St. Petersburg
December uprising in Moscow, led by Bolsheviks easily crushed. 

1905 Fresh Start
Army and Police remained loyal to gov and political parties didn't coordinate effective opposition.
Many revolutionary leaders in exile and couldn't capitalise unrest.
October Manifesto split opposition: 
Bolsheviks, Mensheviks and SR remained hostile
Liberals welcomed manifesto but some wanted written constitions and became Kadets
Octobrists felt October Manifest was final

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Downfall Of Romanovs, 1906-1917

  • Dumas changed the way the country was run..a bit
  • Prime Minister-Stolypin- introduced reforms in agriculture system
  • 1914, Russia joined World War One and fought against Germany& Austria-Hungary
  • Long-term and short-term pressure on Tsarism led to 1917 February Revolution ending 300 years of Romanov dynasty's rule

Key Dates:

  • 1906-Fundamental Laws issued, First Duma began
  • Feb 1907- Second Duma began, ended in June
  • Nov 1907- Third Duma began, lasted until 1912
  • 1907- Redemption Payments abolished
  • 1911-Stolypin assassinated
  • 1912-Fourth Duma began
  • 1914- First World War began
  • 1915- Zemgor formed. Nicholas II appointed himself as supreme commander of army
  • March 1917- Tsar abdicated
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Dumas 1906-1914

Fundamental Laws March 1906 broke some promises made in October Manifesto

  • Tsar had supreme autocratic power
  • Tsar could govern by issuing decrees (Article 87)
  • Council of State set up- Parliamentary body made up of Tsarist sympathisers
  • Laws proposed by Duma apporved by Council of State and Tsar
  • Gov. ministers appointed by Tsar and only had to answer to him

First Duma (April-June 1906) made up of 4 Main Parties

Trudoviks: Peasants and Workers.   Octoborists: moderte-loyal to Tsar.
Progressives: Businessmen.    Kadets: Intellectuals and Professionals.

All had radical demands: All Adult Males should have vote               Policitical Prisoners be released 
Major Land Reforms Introduced to benefit peasants.      Ministers answerable to Duma 

  • Nicholas REFUSED their demands, dissovled after 72 days.
  • Deputies gathered in Finland and appealed to Russians to protest dissolution
  • Nicholas arrested deputies and banned from standing in future elections 
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The Other Dumas

                                       Parties Present:                         Summary:

Second Duma:                 Kadet deputies dropped           Passed land reform by Stolypin
Feb-June 1907                 Seats gained by SRrs,              Existed in state of uproar
                                       Mensheviks+Bolsheviks           Lasted only 4 months

Third Duma:                     Electoral system revised-         Right-wing, worked with gov
Nov 1907-June 1912:        Peasants lost vote                   rather than challenge.
                                       Mainly conservatives.              Most proposals passed
                                       Octborists largest party.          Lasted over 4 years

Fourth Duma:                   Dominated Octobrists             Worked until War Aug 1914
Nov 1912-Feb 1917          Mainly Right Wing

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Third and Fourth Dumas made Progress

  • Hated system of Land Captains and replaced with Justices of the Peace (elected officials who judged minor court cases)
  • Massive increase in educational provision for students of all ages
  • Political parties which had been attacked by Tsaras and Okhrana were now legal
  • Debates which took place in Duma were widely reported and discussed in press
  • Nicholas II appeared to change attitude towards Dumas. 1906 wrote he spat on idea of constitution but 6 years later wrote 'Dumas started too fast now it is slower but better and more lasting.'
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Stolypin- Repression and Reform

Stolypin had Ruthless Attitude to Unrest

  • Was a governor. Used police and army to supress unrest and keep firm grip on people.
  • 1906 Nicholas appointed Stolypin as Prime Minister. Most revolutionary activity had been put down, but still disturbances in country and political assassination happening more often
  • Stolypin introduced new court system where offenders rapidly tried and sentenced. Thousands of rebels tried, hundreds executed and many sentenced to hard labour or exile.
  • Strong measures effective. 1908 order been restored but Stolypin had made Tsarism more unpopular.

Russian Agriculture Inefficient 

  • Serfdom been abolished but peasants remained under control of mir
  • Each family had share of land in different fields rather than working a single more efficient landholding, and farming techniques outdated.
  • Yields low and famines were widespread and frequent
  • Most peasants couldnt make profit and kulaks only ones doing well.
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Stolypin's Agriculture Reforms


  • Increase prosperity of peasants to develop class of well-off agriculute workers
  • Increase crop yields
  • Fewer Famines
  • Make peasants more content and less likely to rebel against autocracy.
    Land Reforms:
  • 1906 Tsar decreesd each peasants had unconditional right to land
  • Could demand their own landholding+farm it without interferance from mir
  • Stolypin brought in agriculture education to train peasants in more advanced farming techniques in attempt to increase yields
  • Sold Vast areas of Crown land to Peasant Land Bank for resale to peasant, to increase land available for farming
    Emigration to Siberia:
  • Rural areas overcrowded- he enocuraged migration to Siberia to increase production 
  • Completion Trans-Siberian Railway helped migrants to move
  • Offered incentives to peasants moving into eastern areas-cheap land
  • Around 3 million peasants relocated to Siberia 1908 and 1913.
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Other Reforms and Results

  • Redemption Payments finally ended 1907
  • Internal passports abolished, people had more freedom
  • Unpopular Land Captains replaced with elected Justices of the Peace

Resutls Patchy:

  • Reality few peasants could afford to separate from mir and set up own landholdings-only 25% had done so by 1914
  • Stolypin hadn't addressed problem that still millions of hectares owned by nobility
  • Little change in farming technique and not much incrase in farming output

But argued not given enough time?

  • He knew agriculutre reforms needed development and establised over years
  • Assassinated 1911
  • War 1914, meaning long-term effects of reforms never realised
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First World War

Highlighted Weaknessed in Russia's Government and Society

  • Early August 1914, Germany and Astria-Hungary declared war on Russia
  • Russia looked like a force to be reckoned with but its military, society and gov were falling apart
  • By 1917, Feb Revolution had toppled Tsar's gov
  • War highlighted weaknesses in Russia's gov and society, which contributed to downfall of Tsar

Armed Forces

  • Millions conscripted into large armies 'Russian Steamroller'
  • Initial enthusiasm for war shattered by 2 early defeats at Tannenberg+Masurian lake 1914
  • Conditions poor, insufficient food supplies and lakc of rifles and ammunition
  • Military hospitals filthy and had insufficient medical supplies 
  • Military command strucute inefficient. Officiers chosen based on social position rather than military abilities
  • 1916 armed forces demoarlised and undisciplined. Desertions common.


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First World War Continued

Transport :

  • Railway system transported troops and military equiptment-needs of army took priorty
  • Railways overloaded in peacetime and by 1916 system virtually collapsed
  • Armaments factories producing plenty of supplies but state of railways meant they couldn't be delievered- Not enough food getting through, Lines blocked by engine failures and grain left to rot in sidings
  • 1916 food shortages widespread+many people in towns left starving


  • 1914 gov abandoned gold standard, which linked value of rouble to Russia's gold reserves. Left gov. free to print as many bank notes as wanted
  • Policy led to inflation- wages couldn't keep up with rapidly rising prices
  • 1916 peasants realised that due to inflation it wasn't worth selling grain
  • Russian's main ports for exporting goods blockaded, adding to gov.s economic difficulties
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First World War Continued 2

Nicholas and Alexandra:

  • September 1915, Nicholas II appointed slef Commander in Chief of Army
  • Away from Petrograd long time and appointed wife Alexandra to supervise gov- she was German, rumours she was passing military secrets to German relatives
  • Alexandra constantly changed ministers, causing instablility in gov
  • Alexandra strongly influenced by Rasputin who relieved her son's haemophilia.
  • Relied heavily on his advice and accused of affair with him
  • Aristocracy and officials felt threatened by his importance at court and power over royal fam
  • He was murdered by aristocracts in December 1916 but damage he caused not undone

Political Opposition:

  • 1914 most political parties supported war effort and Duma suspended
  • 1915 failures in war forced Nicholas to recall Duma
  • Recalled Duma repeated First Dumas demands
  • Nicholas again rejected proposal and Duma parties united to form Progressive Bloc continuing to press for change in running of war
  • 1915 Zemgor formed to help war effort-provided supplies to hospitals and helped organise smaller industries in towns and villages
  • Nicholas suspicious of Zemgor and refused to work with it
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Political and Social Factors of February Revolutio

Economic and Social Problems:

  • Russian towns overcrowded and had poor sanitation and water supplies
  • Famine common as food supplies unreliable
  • Living conditions for workers cramped and unhealthy
  • Men and women worked for long hours with little pay
  • Health and education services poor and created social inequalities
  • 1914 Russia's undustrial output ranked 5th out of 5 great powers. Smaller countries like Britain and Germany still out-produced Russia
  • HOWEVER, Russian economy had grown massively since 1890s.


  • Tsar reluctant to give Duma more responsibility
  • Nicholas's reluctance to make major reforms disappointed many politicains
  • HOWEVER, by 1914 Duma become accepted part of national political life, showing old system of autocracy changed. Duma had lot of potential to develop into powerful force.
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Tsarist System and Consequences of WWI

Tsarist System:

  • Nicholas wasn't effective leader
  • His father said he was 'girlie'
  • When father died, Nicholas admitted didn't feel fit to govern
  • 1914, Nicholas strongly influenced by wife and Rasputin-disastrous consequences.
  • HOWEVER, 1913 Tsar celebrated 300 years of Romanov rule. Nicholas+family felt confidence enough to parade through streets of St. P without fear, showing little opposition- Event was widerly celebrated by public.


  • over 1 million troops dead and 4 million wounded
  • workers suffering-starvation
  • Okhrana warned gov about unrest and indicated revolution could happen
  • President of Duma, Rodzianko, warned Tsar that Russia reaching crisis point. Nicholas ignored warning
  • 1905 gov used force to disperse riots and crush strikes but 1917 there was widespread support for srtikes among all classes
  • Mosrt troops unwilling to fire at protesters+ wealthiers classes believed monarchy couldn't be save.
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Key Dates Leading to Revolution and Tsars Abdicati

JAN 1917- anniversary of Bloody Sunday commemorated by large demonastrations 22ND FEB- 20000 workers from Putilov engineering works went on strike and demonstrated 23RD FEB- International Women's Day marked with demonstrations and meetings 25TH FEB-Petrograd paralysed by general stike-industry shut down 27TH FEB- Strikes and Demonstrations turned into revolution:  Tsar ordered Petrograd troops to supress unrest
Widespread mutiny among troops
Nicholas ordered Duma to shut down-refused and set up Provisional Committe
Army's High Command ordered all troops to obey orders of Provisional Committe 28TH FEB- left wingers set up Petrograd Soviet, which looked after interests of workers       and soldiers  28TH FEB- Tsars traveled by train to Petrograd but diverted to Pskov by mutinous troops
Met with members of army's High Command, ministers and representives of Duma
Told him to abdicate in favour of son Alexi but Tsar feared his haemphiliac son woulnd't be strong enough to rule
2ND MARCH- Nicholas II abdicated and asked brother to be Tsar but he refused 3RD MARCH- Provisional Commitee became Provisional Government and ruled for 7 months. 

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1917 Key Dates

Provisional Government wasn't compeltely in control, it shared power with the Petrograd Soviet- Lenin's return to Russia in April strengthened the Bolsheviks and made them more popular.
Despite failure of June Offensive, Provisional Gov crushed July Days rising.
Kornilov Affair failed to topple gov but October 1917 Bolsheviks organised a coup and seized power in Petrograd.

Key Dates of Bolshevik Triumph:
3rd March- First Provisional Government
3rd April- Lenin returned from exile
June- June Offensive
July- July Days
8th July- Second Provisional Government
August- Kornilov Affair
10th October- Bolsheviks decided to seize power from Provisional Government
24th October- Octboer Revolution Begab
26th October- Lenin announced that All-Russian Congress of Soveits was new gov.


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Dual Power

Provisional Government and Petrograd Soviet Shared Power

Provisional Gov:

  • Led by Prince Lvov
  • Mainly made up of Kadets and other Liberal parties
  • Only socialist was Kerensky
  • No lawful authority, hadn't been appointed by Tsar or elected by people
  • Announced govern until Constituent Assembly elected
  • First weeks had some support and authority was respected in larger cities, little power in provinces
  • Local politicans decided they would rule without interference from gov.

Petrograd Soviet:

  • Made up of workers elected by factories
  • Aimed to look after worker's interests and to protect their rights
  • Workers' and soldiers' also set up in other towns
  • First dominated by Mensheviks and SRs, but Bolsheviks became influential
  • Worried army might be used to crush revolution so passed Soviet Order No 1


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Soviet Order Number 1 and Results

Soviet Order Number One:

  • Soldiers could only obey military orders if they had been approved by Petrograd Soviet
  • Gave the soviet military power

Dual Power Worked Well for a While and Agreed on some early Reforms
Free Speech and Freedom of press
Constituent Assembly to be democratically elected
Abolition of Okhrana
Political prisoners freed
Trade unions legally recognised
Abolition of death penalty

Although impressive, they didn't tackle huge problems country still faces.
BOTH wanted war to continue
Provisional Government wanted to leave problem of land reform to Constituent Assembly 

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Opposition to Provisional Government

Conflicting Attitudes to War

Socialist Parties:                        Kadets and Liberals               Bolsheviks
Defensive War                           Continue Fighting                   Defensive War until Lenin
Thought army shouldn't              Believed Russia had              returned
advance against                        obligation towards allies         Lenin demanded immediate
enemy but should                      Peace with Germany              end to war
prevent Germany                       would mean loss of land        Policy became popular
from advancing to Russia           and national humilation          between April and Oct 1917

Lenin Wanted Soviets to Seize Power

  • Feb Revolution took him by surprise
  • German Gov helped him back into Russia as hoped Bolsheviks would undermine Russia's war efforts
  • Bolsheviks had been working with other socialist parties and supported Provisional Gov- Lenin changed all that
  • Arrive 3rd April and declared complete opposition to gov-calling immediate socialist revoluition. Set out Bolshevik programme in April Theses
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April Theses

April Theses called for:

  • Revolution to seize power from Provisional Government and transfer it Soviets
  • Immediate end to war
  • Transfer all land to peasants


Lenin strengthened support for Bolsheviks

  • Before Lenin returned the Bolsheviks competed with other left-wing parties for public support
  • Lenin's radical demandes meant that Bolsheviks appeared distinct and different
  • Attracted support from people who were against war and who felt let down by Provisional Government
  • Peasants attracted to Lenin's policy of land reforms and switched from the SRs. 
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Milyukov Crisis, June Offensive, July Days

Milyukov Crisis changed Government

  • April 1917 Forgein Minister Milyukov secretly informed Allies that Russia would stay war
  • He expected them to gain territory from Turkey if there was Allied victory
  • April, new of his proposal leaked-viloent demonstrations in Petrograd
  • May, Milyukov resigned and Prince Lvov made major change to gov
  • Mensheviks and SRs joined gov, and Kerensky appointed Minister of War

June Offensive Disaster for Provisional Government

  • 1917- attack led my Brusilov against German forces
  • Russia's last effort in war 
  • 400000 soldiers died and 170000 deserted
  • Army disintegrated. Troops mutinied and desertions widespread
  • Many soldiers influence by Bolshevik agitators and lost will to fight

July Days Strengethed Provisional Government

  • Failure of June Offensive triggered July Days- riots and violence
  • Unclear whether Lenin ordered rioting
  • Badly led and disorganised
  • 3 days Prov Gov used loyal troops to restore order
  • Provisional Gov's ability to crush uprising reinforced authoirty and restored control

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Provisional Government in Crisis

July Days Weakened Bolsheviks ... but not fatally

  • After July Days, gov moved against Bolsheviks and claimed Lenin was traitor
  • Leading Bolsheviks arrested and Lenin fled to Finland
  • Some Bolsheviks thought events of July were massive defeat and party wouldn't be able to recover
  • Bolshevik support increasing among army and peasants
  • Although gov weakened Bolsheviks in short term, they didn't attempt to destroy Bolsheviks althogether

Second Provisional Gov led by Kerensky

  • July, Lvov resigned and second government formed
  • Kerensky became Prime Minister, heading gov of SRs, Kadets, Progressives and Mensheviks
  • Got rid of Brusilov and appointed Kornilov as commander in chief
  • Kornilov reintroduced death penalty for deserters and mutineers, restroing discipline in army
  • Kerensky government faced economical and agriculutral problems
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Economic and Agriculture Issues Within Provisional

Economic Problems:

  • Inflation got worse. Rises in workers' wages didn't match rise in prices. Workers became to strike
  • Government couldn't provide enough food and fuel to towns and cities
  • Peasants refused to sell their grain because money essentially worthless.
  • Fuel Shortages forced factories to close. Army had to deal with inadequate supplies as well as desertions

Agriculture Problems:

  • Peasants believed Tsar's land would be given to them. They were arranged by Provisional Government's decision to ignore issue until Constituent Assembly elected
  • Peasant militancy strengthened by deserting soldiers returning to their villages and by others on leave
  • Violence towards landowners became widespread-many killed and land seized
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Kornilov Affair

Weakened Provisional Government:

  • August, Kornilov ordered troops to march on capital, where believed he wanted to overthrow government and rule as military dictator
  • Kerensky panicked and joined forces with Petrograd Soviet in attempt to resist Kornilov and defend revolution
  • Arms and ammunition issued to workers and capital prepared for Kornilov's affair
  • Rebellion collapsed, and Kornilov dismissed and arrested

Strengthened the Bolsheviks:

  • Leading Bolsheviks released from prison and given weapons to defend city from Kornilov
  • September, gained control of Petrograd Soviet, strengthening position
  • Army officers believed Kernesky was weak leader who had given into revolutionary groups- refused support gov during October Revolution
  • Kornilov Affair showed Bolsheviks gov had little support and could be easily overthrown
  • Bolsheviks slogan 'Peace, Bread, Land' increased population with peasants
  • Kerensky felt threatened-shut down party's printing presses and arrested leading members.
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1917 October Revolution

Lenin learnt from July Days that premature and unplanned attempt to overthrow Prov Gov would only end in failure. But by October he was convinced that second, well-planned rising would succeed

  • Lenin returned Octber and convinced Bolshevik Central Committe to begin immediate armed uprising
  • Wanted to seize power in name of Soviets when All-Russian Congress of Soviets met Oct
  • Provisional Government announced elections for Constituent Assembly held November
  • Lenin feared SRs would gain most seats, and didn't want to share power with other politcal party
  • Leon Trotsky led Soviet's Military Revolutionary Committee which carried out rising

24th Oct- Trostky ordered Bolshevik Red Guard to seize key postions in Petrograd
Took over railway stations, and post and telegraph offices
25th Oct- Kerensky fled to try and organise counter-attack using loyal troops
His attempt at resistance failed and he left country
Bolsheviks stormed Winter Palace where government was meeting and arrested ministers without fight 
26th Oct- Lenin announced that Prov Gov been overthrown and power transfered to Congress
Congress handed power over to Council of People's Commissars, chaired by Lenin 

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On a few of your cards what you have written is too long... eg card 4 orthodoxy is missed off... But these cards are really good except that little bit :D these have be downloaded 

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