Unit 1 Dynamic planet


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What are the 4 spheres?
Atmosphere - The layers of gases/air around us Hydrosphere - The layer of water Biosphere - The very thin layer of living things on the crust Geosphere - The rocks of the crust and deeper towards the core
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How are we damaging each of the spheres?
Atmosphere - releasing CO2 into it Hydrosphere - Using too much water in some areas Biosphere - deforestation (chopping down the trees) Geosphere - Using up fossil fuels
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What are the layers of the Earth?
Inner core, Outer core, Mantle,Crust
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What is the Lithosphere?
The Lithosphere which is solid, is split up into tectonic plates, these move slowly (2 - 5cm/yr) on top of a layer called the asthenosphere - which is like porridge!
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What are the two types of crust?
Continental crust = 30 - 50km thick, light, made out of granite Oceanic crust = 6 - 8km thick, very dense, made out of basalt
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How do we know about the inside of the Earth?
Meteorites = Give us a clue as to what the core is like, Lava from volcanoes, hot springs, geysers
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What is geothermal heat?
Heat from the inside of the earth. Produced by the radioactive decay of uranium etc. in the core and mantle,
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What are convection currents?
As heat rises from the core it creates convection currents in the liquid outer core and mantle. These convection currents move the tectonics plates on top of them
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What are plumes?
Where heat moves to the surface for example; hotspots like hawaii
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What is the magnetosphere?
The earth is surrounded by an invisible magnetic field - made by the outer core - protects the earth from harmful radiation from space/the sun
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What is the Pangea?
The continents were once all joined together = Pangea. In support of this, Identical fossils and rocks have been found in teh western Africa and Eastern South America for example. Today, lithosphere split up into 15 tectonic plates.
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When two plates meet what's this called?
Plate boundary
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What is a constructive plate boundary?
Where two oceanic plates are moving apart from each other, New oceanic crust is forming constantly in the gap created The magma is injected between the two plates. As it cools it forms new oceanic crust. The magma is runny. Shallow sided volcanoes
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What hazards does a constructive plate boundary hold?
Small earthquakes are formed by friction as the plates tear apart, Volcanoes that are not very explosive/dangerous. Examples - Iceland - the Mid Atlantic Ridge
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What is a Destructive plate boundary?
Where an oceanic plate meets a continental plate. They are moving towards each other. The denser oceanic plate is subducted beneath the less dense continental plate
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What hazards does a destructive plate boundary hold?
Very destructive earthquakes, Tsunami. Very explosive, destructive volcanoes which cool to be steep sided Example St Helen's, NW USA
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What is a conservative plate boundary?
Formed where two plates are sliding past each other
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What hazards does a conservative boundary hold?
Destructive earthquakes, Small earth tremors daily, no volcanoes, Example San Andreas Fault, California
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What is a Collision Zone?
A type of destructive boundary where two continental plates move towards each other. As they meet they push upwards forming mountain ranges e.g Himalayas
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What hazards does the Collision Zone pose?
Destructive earthquakes, landslides, volcanoes are rare
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What is the VEI
Volcanic Explosivity Index - Measure the destructive power of a volcano on a scale of 1 to 8
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List 6 Volcanic Hazards
Pyroclastic flows - deadly clouds of hot ash and gas, Landslides, Lahars - volcanic mudslides, Lava flows. Ash builds up the roofs of nearby houses - Buildings collapse, Acid rain created
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Give a named example of a destructive plate boundary? (Japan)
Sakurajima occured in Japan, jas been erupting since 1950s, is a composite volcano and was formed from a destructive plate boundary which involved the Pacific plate subducting under the eurasion plate. r
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What are the short term effects of this? (Japan)
Volcanic bombs are thrown over 3km from the volcano, Pyroclastic flows travel 2 km, 30km of ash erupts out every year Long term
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What are the long term effects of this? (Japan)
40% of the land surrounding the volcano is used for growing tea and rice because the volcano has made it really fertile, Hot springs and lava flows are popular tourist attractions
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How to manage the threat? (MONITORING AND PREDICTION)
Aircraft monitor the amount of gas being given off, Tiltmeter detects swelling of magma in the rocks, Boreholes measure the temprature of the water, Hot springs are monitered, Seismometers monitor earthquake activity
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How to manage the threat? (PROTECTION AND EVACUATION)
Concrete shelters protect people form bombs/ash, Concrete lahar channels divert dangerous mud flows EVACUATION = Drills, Evacuation sign routes clearly sign posted
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Why are people in developing countries at greater risk from tectonic hazards than people in developed countries?
More people live in a risky condition - no where else for them to live, Can't afford safe, well built houses - they collapse, Don't have insurance, Governments don't have the money to provide aid, Poor communication - no warning or evacuation
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Give a named example of a Constructive boundary in a developing country?
Haiti earthquake, January 2010, 7.0 on the Richter Scale, No warning
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What were the Primary/Secondary effects? (Haiti)
Primary - 230,000 died, 300,000 injured, 1 million made homeless Secondary - Lot's of aftershocks (buildings collapsing) Cholera spread, People forced to live in poor quality shanty houses, Looting broke out
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How the effects were managed? (Haiti)
Haiti was unable to respond quickly and had to wait for international help to arrive. Charities and governments from all over the world donated money to help
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

How are we damaging each of the spheres?

Back

Atmosphere - releasing CO2 into it Hydrosphere - Using too much water in some areas Biosphere - deforestation (chopping down the trees) Geosphere - Using up fossil fuels

Card 3

Front

What are the layers of the Earth?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is the Lithosphere?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What are the two types of crust?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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