Geography People and Planet (notes on whole topic)

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Geography Snapshot notes (P&PL)
Population and Planet
Population Dynamics
The Demographic Transition Model
Shows the past, current and future population change
High stationary = Pre- Industrial society (Ethiopia, Bangladesh)
Early expanding = Early industrialisation (Peru, Sri Lanka)
Late Expanding = Later industrialisation (China, Australia)
Low Stationary = Developed country (Canada, USA, UK)
Population Pyramids
Natural Increase
To calculate natural increase you minus the crude death rate from the crude birth rate (CBR-CDR = Natural
o Crude Birth rate = number of people born per thousand per year
o Crude Death rate = number of people who die per thousand per year

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Reasons for variation in Birth and Death rates:
Age structure: - Youthful population = increasing population (in future) -Greying Population = lots of death
(in future: decreasing population)
Diet, housing and living conditions: -More food, good housing and living conditions = stable birth rate and
healthy children, low death rate-Poor housing, diet and living conditions = high birth and death rate
Medical/ health care: -Good healthcare = stable birth rate (healthy children) and low death rate ­Bad
healthcare = high death rate and high birth…read more

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Push and Pull factors
Push Factors
o War
o High unemployment
o Climate
o Famine
o High living cost
Pull Factors
o Low living standards
o Better climate
o Low unemployment/ job opportunities
o Better economy
UK Immigration Policies (CASE STUDY)
Open doors ­ after World War 1 EU migration 1992 Tiered System 2008
Migrants from colonies and farmer As a EU member state the UK allows Applicants from non-EU are placed
colonies were given free entry into people from other EU states to…read more

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However as LEDCs develop economically they use more energy as they start using more machinery and
technology (e.g. cars and machinery in factories) ­ this consumes resources and will lead to a bigger shortage
of them
Theories about consuming resources
Philosopher Theory Evidence
Boserup As population increases and Genetically Modified crops to get a
resources run out, we will think up higher yield ­ meaning more e.g.…read more

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Peak Oil
This is the point at which oil production reaches its maximum and then declines rapidly (forcing prices to rise)
A decline in production has already occurred in 18 countries
Living Spaces
Key Terms
Greenfield Site Area of land not built on before
Brownfield site Area of land that has been built on before and is now
derelict or unused
Rural Idyll A common perception that rural areas are quiet and
attractive places to live
Urban Sprawl Growth of an urban area
Regeneration Development…read more

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Transport links - commuters near train stations
Cultural background ­ immigrants might want to live near people of the same background
Knowledge/perception ­ knowledge of a place might affect your decision to move there
Views of living spaces changing over time:
Pre ­ Child stage (young urban professionals (YUPpies), single working people, couples without children) ­
choose an area with good transport links, good nightlife, urban areas and small apartments
Child bearing years ­ (couple thinking about having children) ­ moving to more comfortable areas,…read more

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Easy access to water
o Earn more money ­ send back to families
Negative aspects
o House prices are very high
o If you can't find work then you go to the shanty town
SUSSEX ­ Londoners moving to rural area (MEDC example)
Push Factors from urban areas
o Overcrowding
o Congestion and pollution
o High crime
o More cars so less safe for kids
o Oversubscribed schools ­ children getting less attention from teachers
Pull factors from rural life
o Better quality of life…read more

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As a result of this quick development there is around 600,000 slums
How can living spaces be more sustainable?
There is a demand for more houses because there is a higher population
56% of planned housing planned on greenfield sites and 44% on brownfield sites
Development of infrastructure and transport to London ­ could impact on wildlife and urbanizing the area
Hot and dry climate ­ Majobe desert
Las Vegas has grown massively ­ growing business etc.…read more

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Aims to heighten efficiency of energy use
Uses the `energy butler' ­ used to show inhabitants how much energy they use and make their energy use
more efficient
Making a Living
Key Terms
Clark Fisher Model Shows the employment and industry change over time,
based on the past experiences of the UK. It shows the
change in Primary, Secondary, Tertiary and Quaternary
employment sectors from the pre-industrial stages to
the post-industrial stages.…read more

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Tertiary and Quaternary: 80% Contribution to GDP: 75% (Big global communications, office
jobs, 1,000,000 calls a minute in London and fibre optic broadband all over England)
UK is much more developed ­ most of their manufacturing is done abroad, so people have higher paid jobs,
meaning they have a better education and can take on more highly skilled labour like being a doctor.…read more


Mr A Gibson

Sustainability is threaded throughout these comprehensive notes which look at People and the Planet but integrate the key ideas of sustainable living. Well worth getting a hard copy of these into your notes.


Merci beaucoup! Very useful. 

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