Geography Dynamic Planet (notes on whole topic)

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Geography Snapshot Notes (DynPl)
Dynamic Planet
Restless Earth
Tectonic Plates
The Earths Structure and tectonic movement
The earth's core is 5000°c ­ these high temperatures are caused by radioactive decay
The heat given off by the earth's core causes convection currents in the mantle and these convection currents
drive plate motion
Inner and Outer core made up of iron and nickel
Mantle is semi-molten rock ­ more solid near the top
Crust is made up of tectonic plates ­ oceanic and continental
Magnetic Field
Protects us from harmful radiation and particles in the solar winds ­ they would destroy all living things and
burn us
It also helps us navigate
The solar winds get destroyed by the magnetic field around the earth ­ it blocks the solar winds from
reaching the earth
A reason for the magnetic field is because of the convection currents in the outer core ­ which is made by
iron and nickel ­ these convection currents create electrical and magnetic fields
Plate Boundaries
Constructive plate boundary
Plates get pulled away from each other ­ caused by convection
currents moving in the opposite direction
When the plates move apart the magma spills out from underneath
(lava is runny and not explosive)
When the lava cools it creates new land e.g. the Atlantic mid-ocean
Causes shield volcanos
Destructive plate boundary
Collision Margin
o Continental and continental drive into each other
o The crusts causes the land to buckle upwards causing fold
mountains (the Himalayas)
o One of the plates gets forced underneath
o Causes earthquakes
Destructive margin
o Ocean and ocean or Ocean and continental

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One of the plates gets forced under ­ and the carbon in the crust gets heated and CO2 gets formed
o The pressure, because the CO2 gas needs to escape builds up and causes an earthquake and
composite volcano
o The subduction zone is the area where the one plate gets forced underneath the other plate
o Where the oceanic plate goes under there are ocean trenches
Conservative Plate Margin
Two plates moving in different directions or the same direction but at
different speeds passed…read more

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Building Techniques
o Designed to withstand pyroclastic and lava flows ­ strengthened so withstand hot ash
o Barriers divert lava away
o All this reduces unemployment after the volcano
Placement planning
o Avoiding risk areas and using fire breaks
o Emergency service planning and prep
o Evacuation routes
o Training on reaction and evacuation
o Survival kits
Sending aid to help out
WHAT: Composite volcano
WHERE: Montserrat, 25.06.…read more

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People evacuated and shelters were built
o £17 million sent in initial aid by UK - £41 mill in total
o Local emergency services
o Montserrat volcano observatory set up to predict future eruptions
Weak Shallow Earthquakes
Produced with constructive boundaries
Strong shallow Earthquakes
Destructive plate boundaries
Strong Deep Earthquakes
Destructive plate boundaries
Conservative plate boundaries
Reducing impacts of Earthquakes
Prediction ­ no technology or sure way of knowing
o Clues: like animal behaviour and small tremors
Building Techniques
o Reinforced concrete
o Special…read more

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Emergency couldn't reach for 30 hours
o 3.3 million tents
o International aid needed
o Troops brought in
o Government aid needed
o Aimed to rebuild in 3 years
WHAT: Collision Margin, 6.3 on Richter scale
WHERE: Italy, 6.04.…read more

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Little Ice Age (Historical Climate Change) 1500-1850
Peak around 1630 with a 0.25 degree temperature drop
Precipitation increased and Winters were longer and harsher
Rivers and seas froze ­ Iceland lost half its population
Crops destroyed because of cold conditions and livestock died
o Farmers abandoned farms and falls in harvest
o Led to starvation
People died of cold
o Wet and cold weather caused more disease e.g.…read more

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Water vapour/ dust particles: Cars, planes and factories etc.
oNitrous oxide (3% of GHG but 250 times more powerful than CO2): Aircraft, cars and lorries,
fertilisers and incinerators etc.…read more

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Pressure on Governments to change
UK ­ impacts of Climate change
o Farmers grow new crops in the warmer climate e.g. Olives
o More money spent on dealing with extreme weather conditions ­ households are estimated to have
to pay 4% more
o Estimated 1% rise for householders to reduce emissions
o Tourism would increase (especially in coastal areas)
o New businesses increasing like air conditional
o Diseases that didn't exist in UK would become more common ­ e.g.…read more

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Battle for the Biosphere
Key Terms
Biome A community of plants and animals that exist in a similar
climate e.g.…read more

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Deserts­ Dry, arid and hot in the day and cold at night(Mid e.g. North Africa)
Mountains ­ mountainous areas, e.g. Himalayas
Tropical Scrub Forest ­ Harsher forest/sparse, hot and slightly wet
Tropical Grassland and Savanna ­ Highly fertile land (e.g.…read more



Don't know the french word for perfect but yeah... this is perfect. Thanks!

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