Topic 7 Globalisation

  • Created by: Abbie
  • Created on: 11-06-13 16:47
What is meant by globalisation?
The increasing interconectedness of societies
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what are some of the causes of globalisation?
spread of new information and communication technologies (ICT) and the influence of global mass media, cheap air travel.
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What does held suggest?
There has been a globalisation of crime - an increasing interconectedness of crime across national borders. globalisation creates new oppertunities to comit crime new means of commiting crime and new offences. e.g. cyber crime.
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Castells argues there is now a global crime economy that takes a number of forms:
Arms trafficing, traficing in nuclear materials, smuggling illegal immigrants, trafiking in women and children (prostitution/slavery) cyber crimes, green crimes, the drugs trade, smuggling legal goods e.g tobacco to avoid taxes.
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how does globalisation create a risk consciousness?
where a risk is seen as global rather than tied to particular places. e.g the increased movement of people as economic migrants seeking work has given rise to anxieties among populations about the risk of crime and the need to protect their borders.
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what does Taylor argue about globalisation?
it has led to changes in the pattern and extent of crime. by giving free rein to market forces, globalisation has created greater inequality and rising crime.
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how has globalisation led to crime at both ends of the social spectrum?
has allowed transnational corporations to switch manufacturing to low wage countries producing unemployment and poverty.- lack of employment oppertunites leads to unemployed to look for illegitemate jobs e.g. drugs trade.
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what did hobbs and dunningham find?
The way crime is organised is linked to the economic changes brought by globalisation. involves individuals acting as a 'hub' around which a network forms, composed of others seeking opertunities and linking legitemate and illegitemate activities.
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what is meant by crime working as a glocal system?
that it is still locally based but with global connections.
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what else to hobbs and dunningham argue?
changes assosiated with globalisation have led to changes in patterns of crime e.g. shift from old heirachal gang structures to loose networks of entreprenerual criminals.
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what is green crime?
Crime against the environment.
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What does Beck argue about global risk society
the massive increase in productivity and the technology that sustains it have created new manufactured risks; many of these risks involve harm to the environment and consequences to humanity eg global warming caused by greenhouse gasses from industry
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what are the two types of criminology?
Traditional criminology and Green criminology.
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What is traditional criminology?
the starting point for this approach is the national/international laws concerning the environment. it investigates the patterns and causes of law breaking.
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What are positivs/negatives of traditional criminologyy?
Advantage - clearly defined subject matter. however, it is critisised for accepting oficial definitions of environmental problems and crims, which are often shaped by powerful groups such as big businesses to serve there own interests.
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What it Green criminology?
Starts from the notion of harm rather than criminal law. the proper subject of criminology is any action that harms the environment, even if no law has been broken. many of the worst enviro harms are not illegal.
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what are primary green crimes?
crimes that result directly from the destruction and degradation of the earths resources.
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south identifies 4 main types of primary green crime:
Crimes of air pollution, Crimes of deforistation, Crimes of species declininging and animal rights, crimes or water pollution.
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What are secondry Green crimes?
a crime that grows out of the flouting of rools aimed at preventing/regulating environmental disasters.
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South suggest 2 examples of green crimes:
state violence against oppositial groups, hazardous waste and organised crime - disposal of toxic waste is highly profital; businesses more likely to dispose illegaly.
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Evaluation of Green criminology?
recognises growing importance of environmental issues and the need to adress risks of environmental damage.
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what is state crime?
illegal or deviant activities perpetrated by state agencies it includes all forms of crime commited by/on behalf of states and governments. e.g. genocide, war crimes, torture
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Mclaughlin identifies 4 categories of state crime:
Political crimes, Crimes by security and police forces such as genocide/torture. Economic crimes e.g. violations of health and safety laws. Social and Cultural crime e.g. institutional racism
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what are the two reasons for state crime being one of the most serious forms of crime?
1. The scale of the crimes - large scale crimes and potential to inflict massive harm and evade punishment. 2. the state is the source of law - the states role to define whats criminal e.g. nazi created laws allowing them to steralise disabled people
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What did herman and schwendinger argue?
we should define crime in terms of the violation of basic human rights rather than the breaking of legal rules.states that deny human rights must be regarded as criminal.
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stanley cohen critisises schwendingers view..
gross violations of human rights such as genocide is clear crime other acts such as economic exploitation are not evidently crimes. there is only limited agreement on what counts as human right,
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cohen sees the issue of human rights and state crime as a result of 2 factors.
the growing impact of the international human rights movemenet, eg throught the work of organisations such as amnesty international. The increased focus within criminology upon victims.
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what is the three stage spiral of denial?
Stage 1 - it didn't happen. e.g. the state claims there was no massacre but evidence shows otherwise. stage 2. if it did happen it is something else - the state says it isnt what it looks like stage 3 - even if it was what you say it is its justfied
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cohen shows how states use the same techniques when they are attempting to justify human right violations.
Denial of victim, Denial of injury, Denial of responsibility, Condeming the condemners, appeal to a higher loyaltyt
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Kelman and hamilton identify three features that produce crimes of obedience..
Authorisation - when accts are ordered by those in authority Routinisation - once the crime has been commited there is strong pressure to turn the act into routine dehuminisation - when enemy is described asmonsters usual principles dont apply
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Card 2


what are some of the causes of globalisation?


spread of new information and communication technologies (ICT) and the influence of global mass media, cheap air travel.

Card 3


What does held suggest?


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Card 4


Castells argues there is now a global crime economy that takes a number of forms:


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Card 5


how does globalisation create a risk consciousness?


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