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    • Religious fundamentalism
      • characteristics of
        • authoritative sacred text
          • only valid truth - dismiss any other view
        • use of modern tech.
          • to recruit more members
        • us and them mentality
          • seek to establish certainty against world deemed social chaos
        • aggressive reaction
          • draw attention to threatened values - intimidate people
        • prophecy
          • last days upon us soon
      • f.ism and modernity
        • Davie: fundamentalism occurs when modernity threatens central values and need defending
        • Giddens: today's modern society individuals faced with uncertainty - f.ism attraction is the certainty it brings - answers
      • Cosmopolitanism
        • contrast to f.ism = [cos.ism] - open to new ideas + lifestyle = personal choice
        • ignore hybrid movements of c.ism and f.ism
        • ignore how globalisation affects non religion
        • no distinguishing of fundamentalism
      • Bruce: monotheism and f.ism
        • only religons believing in one God produce f.ists.
          • sacred texts mean only one truth is valid
            • Polytheistic religions - e.g. open to intepretations - no f.ism
        • Two fundamentalisms
          • In Third World:  reaction to external hostile forces
          • In Western society: reaction to change in society - e.g. banning abortions - reassert 'true religion'.
      • Davie: secular f.ism
        • merged as of changing modern society - Western Europe perceived religious challenges to liberal secular values provoked secular f.ism
          • E.g. France in 2004 banned religious symbols in schols, 2010 women could not wear veil
      • Huntington: clash of civilisations
        • religious differences in civilisations (any nation linked to big religion)= source of conflict.
          • harder to resolve than political because of deep root in history
            • e.g 9/11 terrorist attack = big example of global conflict
        • Jackson: [orientalism] - stereotyping Eastern nations as untrustworthy. Justifying West's exploitation.
      • arises where trad values threatened - especially by globalisation. Seek to return to past
    • Bruce: Cultural defence
      • Poland
        • Catholic Church = identity for many Poles. Suppressed church led to being used as popular rallying point to Soviet Union - Church regained public role.
      • Iran
        • Islam resistance to growing capitalism - Shah successor aim to widen gap of rich and poor
          • such rapid change imposed suffering - led to Islamic Republic as symbol for resistance
      • religion serves to unite community under threat. Two 20th century examples:
    • Religion and development
      • Nanda: God and globalisation in India
        • globalisation bought India's M/C.
        • Hinduism and consumerism
          • globalisation creates many jobs in India. Jobs tied to economy meant people predicted to abandon religion.
            • however, most still believe supernatural - fashionable to be religious.
              • EXPL: tension of Hindu belief to reject material world + M/C wealth. Use religion to spiritually balance self
                • modern Hinduism encourages M/C wealth
        • Hindu - ultranationalism
          • India global market success = derived from Hindu values - promoted by media as 'essence of culture'.
          • worshipping Hinduism then equals worshipping India itself
            • creates gap between Hindu and non-Hindu in India
      • Redding: capitalism in East Asia
        • China = major global power. Chinese capitalism = [post Confucian values] - trad. Chinese belief system encourages hard work + commitment to education
          • similar to Protestant productivity - leads to economic productivity


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