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WHAT IS GLOBALISATION
· Giddens: "the intensification of worldview social relations which link
distant localities in such a way that local happenings are shaped by events
occurring many miles away and vice versa"
· David Held at al: "the widening, deepening and speeding up of world
wide interconnectedness in all aspects of life, from the cultural to the
criminal, the financial to the spiritual"
· McGrew: The process whereby events, decisions and activities in
one part of the world have significant consequences for people in
quite distant parts of the globe
Globalisation has many causes;
· Spread of new information and communication technologies
· Influence of global mass media
· Cheap air travel
· Deregulation of financial and other markets
· Ease of movement…read more

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THE GLOBAL CRIMINAL ECONOMY:
CATELLS
· There is now a global criminal economy worth over £1 trillion a year in a
number of forms;
o Cyber-crimes
Arms/weapons trafficking
o Green crimes
·
· Trafficking in nuclear materials o International terrorism
· Smuggling of illegal immigrants o Smuggling of legal goods; to evade tax
o Trafficking in cultural artefacts
· Trafficking of women and children
o Trafficking in endangered species
· Sex tourism o The drug trade
· Trafficking in body parts o Money laundering
· The supply is linked to the globalisation process
· Third world countries e.g. Colombia, Peru and Afghanistan have a large,
unemployed population
· Drug cultivation is an attractive option that require little investment or
technology
· In Colombia, an estimated 20% of the population depend on the drug
trade for their income…read more

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GLOBAL RISK CONSCIOUSNESS
· Globalisation creates new insecurities and produces a new
mentality of `risk consciousness', risk is seen as global rather than
local
· E.g. Increased migration may led to the view that tighter control on
the borders is needed
· Much of our knowledge about risk comes from the media so tends
to be exaggerated
· One result is the intensification of social control at the national
level e.g. CCTV, fences and thermal imagery on the border
· Another result is the increased attempts to international
cooperation and control in the various `wars' on terror, drugs and
crime…read more

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GLOBALISATION, CAPITALISM AND
CRIME: TAYLOR
· Globalisation has led to changes in the pattern and extent of crime
· By giving free rein to market forces, it has created greater
inequality and crime
· It has allowed corporations to switch manufacturing to low-wage
countries, producing job insecurity, unemployment and poverty
· The increased materialistic culture promoted by the media
portrays success in terms of a lifestyle of consumption
· All these factors encourage people to turn to crime as means of
cultural or to achieve consumer goods
· They may seek employment with illegitimate organisations e.g.
Drugs trade
· Has led to new patterns of employment; `flexible workers' often
working illegally, under minimum wage and in breach of health
and safety regulations
· Useful in linking global trends to the changes in patterns of crime
· Does not adequately explain how the changes make people behave
it a criminal way…read more

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ORGANISATION - HOBBS &
DUNNINGHAM
· New forms of organisations with international links ; especially
within the drug trade
· Crime works in a `glocal' system: still locally based but with global
connections
· The form it takes varies according to local conditions
· Changes associated with globalisation have led to changes in
patterns of crime
· E.g. The shift from the old rigidly hierarchical gang structure to
lose networks of flexible, entrepreneurial criminals
· However, it is not clear that such patterns are new
· Nor that the older structure have disappeared; it may be that the
two have always co-existed
· May not be generalisable to other criminal activities elsewhere…read more

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