Topic 1 - Theories of Crime, Deviance, Social Order and Social Control

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  • Created by: HollyE97
  • Created on: 07-04-16 17:05
What is Social Control?
The methods used to persuade or force people to conform to the dominant social norms/ values
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What is Deviance?
Rule breaking behaviour (fails to conform to social norms / values). Can be criminal or non-criminal (Hard to define)
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What does social control and socialisation do?
Encourages people to conform to norms / values & prevents deviance
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How is social control achieved?
Positive and negative sanctions enforced by formal and informal agents of social control
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What did 'Newburn (2007)' say about the social construction of crime?
An act is only criminal once the state has labelled it as so. Nothing is criminal in itself - changes depenedant on social attitudes, place and time. CRIME IS SOCIALLY CONSTRUCTED
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What did 'Downes and Rock (2007)' say about defining deviance
Ambiguity is a key feature of rule breaking - People are always unsure if an act is deviant or not because it depends on context (who they are, what they know and what the motive might be)
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What did 'Plummer (1979)' say were the 2 aspects of defining deviance?
1. Societal Deviance: Acts seen as deviant by most 2. Situational Deviance: The act is deviant depending on the situation
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How do 'Cesare Lonbroso' s ideas link to the Victorian era?
He said physical characteristics can identify those who are born criminals - the Victorians believed personality could be linked to skull shapes (PHRENOLOGY)
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For Functionalists - where is the source of crime and deviance?
It's located in the structure of society.
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What did 'Durkheim (1982)' identify as the 4 positive features of crime?
1. Strengthens Collective Values (brings us together), 2. Social Change (e.g. feminism), 3. Safety Valve (released tension), 4. Warning Device (shows us where society is failing)
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What is Merton's Strain Theory?
Crime happens as a result of blocked opportunity for those wanting to achieve cultural goals by legitimate means. Creates anomie and 5 adaption to strain
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What are the 5 adaptions to strain?
1. Conformity (getting a job)/ 2. Innovation (illegitimate means) / 3. Ritualism (lose sight of the CG) / 4. Retreatism (druggies) / 5. Rebellion (rejecting the CG and LM - e.g. rioting)
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Evaluate Strain Theory
1. We don't all have the same goals 2. Only recognises individual responses 3. Doesn't explain why most people to experience strain don't turn to crime 4. Ignores White Collar Crime
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What do Subcultural Theories look at?
How groups adapt to strain. Focus on w/c juveniles b/c they're the biggest group of criminals
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What does Cohen say about 'Status Frustration'?
Thie sense of anger of those who feel they're denied status in society. W/c youths can't achieve the CG they believe in b/c of their failure in school and the job market = SF = make their own set of values (delinquent subculture)
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Evaluate Status Frustration
1. Assumes all w/c youths accept mainstream goals / 2. Explains delinquency as a group / 3. Matza (1964): most delinquents accepted CG but drifted in & out of delinquency
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What are the 3 subcultures identified by Cloward & Ohlin (1960)?
1. CRIMINAL (utilitarian crime - criminal career structure stops the young criminals doing non-U crimes) 2. CONFLICT (expressing anger b/c illegal means are blocked), 3. RETREATIST (double failures)
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Evaluate Cloward & Ohlin
1. Tells us why different w/c delinquency happens in certain circumstances / 2. There's an overlap in the subcultures (utilitarian crime is in all of them)
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Card 2

Front

What is Deviance?

Back

Rule breaking behaviour (fails to conform to social norms / values). Can be criminal or non-criminal (Hard to define)

Card 3

Front

What does social control and socialisation do?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

How is social control achieved?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What did 'Newburn (2007)' say about the social construction of crime?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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