TB8 D&L Lecture 1; Conceptual Knowledge

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  • Created by: mint75
  • Created on: 30-03-16 14:54
What is a concept?
General ideas that allow us to organise objects, events etc on the basis of similarity
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What is the core concept of the Nativist perspective of infant conceptual development?
Initial state populated with some 'core' knowledge
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What is the core concept of the Empiricist perspective of infant conceptual development?
Initial state based on perceptual and sensorimotor primitives, 'blank slates'
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In infant representation of objects, at what age is there no search for hidden objects?
0-8 months
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In infant representation of objects, at what age is there the A not B error?
8-12 months
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In infant representation of objects, at what age is there invisible displacement?
12-18 months
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In infant representation of objects, at what age is there full object permanence?
18-24 months
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What is the A not B error?
Made during sensorimotor stage, habituation of hiding toy under A. Critical trial, toy hid under B whilst infant looking. Error occurs if infant looks under A in this trial.
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What is invisible displacement?
When object permanence is tested by moving object when infant NOT looking
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What are the main criticisms of the empiricist perspective?
Neonates can understand cross-modal contingencies NOT based on experience and infants can have representations of things they cannot see e.g im/possible events
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In core 'object' knowledge, define cohesion
Objects move as connected and bounded wholes
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In core 'object' knowledge, define continuity
Objects move on connected, unobstructed paths
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In core 'object' knowledge, define contact
Objects influence each others motion, only with contact
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In core object knowledge, cohesion; at what age is there knowledge of motion cohesion?
1-2 months
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In core object knowledge, cohesion; at what age is there knowledge of shape cohesion?
4-5 months
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In core object knowledge, cohesion; at what age is there knowledge of colour cohesion?
11 months
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What were the main findings of a core object knowledge study by Baillargeon (1986)? Used a familiarisation event followed by a possible/impossible test event
There was a longer looking time at the impossible event, infants have innate knowledge of continuity
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In a study of core action knowledge using point light displays, what was the main finding?
Infants can distinguish between biological and non-biological forms of motion
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What was the main finding of a study by Csibra et al (1999)? Novel/familiar and im/possible events testing core action knowledge
Experimental group looked longer at familiar actions > new actions. Control group did not differentiate between novel/familiar actions
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What was the main conclusion of the study by Csibra et al (1999)?
A novel yet possible action is as acceptable to infants as an implausible yet familiar action
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In a study of efficiency/goal directedness using the head-touch paradigm by Gergley, Bekkening, Kiraly (2002), what was the main manipulation?
Utility of hands
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In a study of efficiency/goal directedness using the head-touch paradigm by Gergley, Bekkening, Kiraly (2002), what was the main finding?
If the experimentor hands were unobstructed, first touch with hands. If hands were obstructed, first touch with head. Demonstrates rational action
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What does research by Izard, Sann, Spelke, Streri (2009) demonstrate about core number knowledge?
Infants can cross-modally discriminate number knowledge, as can discriminate the closest number image to what they just heard
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What does research about core geometrical knowledge by Gouteux and Spike (2001) suggest?
Infants can orient themselves using landmarks, show sensitivity to different types of geometric information
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Are super-ordinate, basic classes and sub-ordinate classes part of the hierarchical structure of categories?
Yes
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What is category membership coded by?
Prototypicality
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What was the main finding by Quinn (1987) investigating the use of perceptual cues to create categories?
3 month infants familiarised with 6 exemplars of a single form formed the cleanest categories. Presentation of random stimuli was not enough to form a category
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Do infants use prototypical cues to form representations of novel categories?
Yes
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In a visual paired comparisons task, did 62% of infants prefer the novel category or familiar category?
Novel
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In a study investigating the relative role of semantic v.s pereptual cues for categorisation (Oakes, Coppage, Dingel 1997) using habituation what was the main finding?
No difference in looking times in either group when presented with novel exemplar from category. Longer looking time to item of novel category if in similar percep group. Longest looking time to truck in both
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What does research by Oakes, Coppage, Dingel 1997 suggest?
Semantic categories are transient, we categorise based on perceptual similarities.
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What was the main finding by Pauen 2002 for naturalistic exemplars? (between are more similar than within)
Infants longer looking time at item from the novel category irrespective of category. Shows disassociation between semantic categories
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In Pauen 2002, what was the important manipulation?
Items across categories (ie natural v.s artificial) were perceptually more similar than items within (natural v.s artificial furniture/animals)
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What was the main finding by Pauen 2002 for artificial exemplars? (between category are more similar than within)
Artificial and natural groups respond much in the same way. Main effect of trial but NO interaction between percep and semantic category
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What is the implication of results from the artificial exemplar group in Paeun 2002?
Semantic knowledge overrrides perceptual experience in categorisation
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In Plunkett et al 2008, were there 2 perceptual categories in the broad set?
No, there are 2 perceptual categories in the narrow set
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What do results from Plunkett et al 2008 suggest?
As children reach more linguistic phases, begin to incorporate linguistic/language cues into how they categorise
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In Waxman 1990 who investigated language structure on category structure, what was the main manipulation?
Nouns v.s adjectives to frame preference
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What was the main finding of Waxman 1990?
Basic level concepts were unaffected by the linguistic structure. Superordinate BETTER performance for nouns, subordinate better performance for adjectives and vice versa
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Why was there a difference in whether nouns/adjectives affected category structure in Waxman 1990?
Better performance on subordinate with adjectives because adjectives used to make fine grain distinctions between objects. Superordinate and nouns better because broader categories
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What is the core concept of the Nativist perspective of infant conceptual development?

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Initial state populated with some 'core' knowledge

Card 3

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What is the core concept of the Empiricist perspective of infant conceptual development?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

In infant representation of objects, at what age is there no search for hidden objects?

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Card 5

Front

In infant representation of objects, at what age is there the A not B error?

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