TB6 D&L Lecture 1; Word Meanings and ambiguity

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  • TB6 D&L Lecture 1; Word Meanings and ambiguity
    • How we understand words with more than one meaning
      • What we already know
        • Gating; context influences recognition point
        • Cross-modal priming; numerous meanings are briefly activated
      • Terminology of ambiguity
        • Homophone
        • Homograph
        • Homonym
          • Polysemous (senses)
        • Heterographic homophone/ homograph
      • Meaning frequency?
        • Balanced; meanings = common
        • Unbalanced; meanings X= common
      • Context and unbalanced homonyms
        • Dom/sub meanings; context strongly constrains meaning
        • Selectivity in terms of context dominance
          • Multiple access; SUB-ORDINATE constraining context
          • Selective priming; DOMINANT constraining context
          • Evidence AGAINST a strong modular account (both models are relevent)
      • Selectivity in terms of context dominance
        • Multiple access; SUB-ORDINATE constraining context
        • Selective priming; DOMINANT constraining context
        • Evidence AGAINST a strong modular account (both models are relevent)
    • Models of the influence of sentence context on meaning selection
      • Multiple Access Model
        • Swinney (1979)
        • Upon ambiguity, ALL MEANINGS are accessed in a context-independent way
          • Only the contextually appropriate meaning selected
      • Context-guided single-reading lexical access model
        • Schvanevelt (1976)
        • Conext used to RESTRICT ACCESS to only the appropriate meaning
          • Inappropriate meanings are NEVER accessed
    • Evidence to support the different models
      • Rodd et al; (2002) Lexical decision task
        • Word recognition FASTER for words with fewer meanings and many senses
          • Word recognition is NOT independent of meaning
      • Online tasks
        • Cross-modal priming
          • Biasing contexts
            • Swinney (1979); activation of meanings of ambiguous words (lexical decision task)
              • Early v.s late effects of context
                • Context has no effect on both early access OR later presentation
                  • Boh meanings are still primed; MULTIPLE ACCESS
          • Measure meaning activation
      • Meta-analyses
        • Lucas (1999); sentential context effects
      • Semantic ambiguity tasks in patients in PVS

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