Stuart Britain - The Civil War and Cromwell

Significance of the Windsor Prayer Meeting.
April, 1648. During the second Civil War, the army gathered at Windsor to decide Charles' fate - Death
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Who was Cromwell?
Upper, middle class of the gentry. 'wealthy and influential' person.
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When did Cromwell become Lord Protector?
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What did Cromwell do as Lord Protector?
Divided England into different military zones, governed by the army ( The Rule of the Generals, 1555-57)
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What was the key stand in English Puritanism?
Millenarianism - the world is ending, they had to get rid of the king to save it.
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What was the Fifth Kingdom/Monarchy?
They saw the final kingdom, not the end of the world, so they had to get rid of the monarch.
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What was the Pride's Purge?
1648. Cromwell had sent Thomas Pride to purge the Rump Parliament MPs that were against Cromwell. MPs left behind were Pym, Wyndom and Eliot, who agreed with Cromwell and signed the paper to end Charles.
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Why was the Second Civil War a turning point?
Many people in the army saw that settlement between royalists and parliament was impossible.
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Who was involved in the First Civil War?
England, Ireland and Scotland, the rebellions.
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The Dutch War
A source of division between the Army and the Rump was the Dutch war. the army saw the protestant dutch republic as a natural ally. However the dutch lost their economic advantage after the Rump's Navigation Act, 1651.
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Why did Cromwell remove the Rump?
-Parliamentary control over the army. -Cromwell's own vision of a godly nation and political settlement. -Fear over the Rump's Bill for a new representative included.
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When was the rump dissolved?
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When was the execution of the King?
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The significant event of 1651, Scotland.
Charles II was willing to invade England with the help of the Scottish royalist force of 20,000. However the army was captured in 1651.
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What happened in Drogheda, Ireland?
Ireton imposed English control through commanding an army to occupy the country till 1660. -This is also known as Cromwell's Irish campaign
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The Military Coup
Attempt made to establish Cromwell as the Lord Protector. Led by Lambert, military leader. 1653.
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Pride's Purge
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Regicide of King Charles
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England declared as common wealth
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Cromwell dissolves the Rump
1653, April
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Calling of the Nominated Assembly
July, 1653
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Adoption of the Instrument's of the Government
December, 1653
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Cromwell appointed Lord Protector
December, 1653
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Biddle's Case
1654, A teacher who denied the Trinity. Accused of blasphemy, Biddle was to be imprisoned and books were to be burned.
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The significance of the Biddle's Case.
1654, though this case the parliament was attempting to enforce what it saw as its right to control religion over the protector and his council.
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Cromwell's success as a Protector.
-Rule of the Major Generals to an extent (radical approach to stabilise a country, and aims were achieved in the short run). -The Humble Petition and Advise, 1567 (Cromwell decided not o take the Crown).
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Cromwell's failures as a Protector.
- The first protectorate parliament, republicans attacked Cromwell's position seeing him as an alternative monarch and believed that the parliament should be the soul authority. -Major generals failed to reform the society.
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The Militia Bill and the end of the Rule of Generals
1657, enforced decimation tax (by the generals), 10% income given to generals. -MPs feared a strong military hence unease against Cromwell. -Cromwell abandoned the generals.
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Why was the Militia Bill significant?
1657, It showed that Cromwell was willing to abandon the generals and Lambert for peace ad stability with the parliament.
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The Third Protectorate parliament
Richard faced opposition from republicans against a protectorate. The army, triggered by parliament discussing settlement of the army as a militia, forced Richard to dissolve parliament. which led him to the end of his protectorate 1659.
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Cromwell dies but nominates his son Richard to be the next protectorate.
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What happened after the end of Richard's rule?
The army called back the Rump. Inevitably, there had been a restoration of the monarch, as the rump always favoured a monarch to stable the parliamentary rule.
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Who was Cromwell?


Upper, middle class of the gentry. 'wealthy and influential' person.

Card 3


When did Cromwell become Lord Protector?


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Card 4


What did Cromwell do as Lord Protector?


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Card 5


What was the key stand in English Puritanism?


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