Charles I, 1629-1660

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  • Created on: 29-05-14 09:52
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Personal rule
Was the failure of personal rule inevitable?
Three Resolutions
Treason to collect T&P
Treason to pay T&P
Treason if Armenian or Popish Catholic
Charles' reasons for ruling without parliament
They want too much power ­ taking away his
They weren't sticking to what they said they were going to do
Parliament should know they're doing wrong
What happened to arrested MP's?
5 admitted guilty ­ released
Holles fined and lived in exile ­ 78 years
Eliot and Valentine tried in 1630 ­ guilty ­ imprisoned in tower of London
Eliot refused pardon of King ­ died in tower 1632
Valentine refused pardon on King ­ remained in the tower until 1640
Parliament order release ­ still have a grudge
Treatment of Eliot & Valentine shows
Charles was able to use his power & authority during personal rule
Noone to protect the MP's
Caused a lot of hostility
How did Charles increase the `court vs. country' split?
Created atmosphere of formality & inaccessibility
Clear divide between rich & poor
Charles used court to demonstrate the difference in society
`out of touch'
Charles believed that he was making the country more formal
Therefore easier for everyone
Charles could rule without parliament Charles couldn't rule without parliament
Appointed all bishops, judges, privy councillors, JP's weren't paid so could keep some of
local govt. & royal household money/ not collect it
Didn't have to pay JP's Juries, constables, sheriffs and church
Privy council could act as a court, inspect any wardens unpaid ­ limited royal power
aspect of govt. business & punish offenders Only way Charles could legislate laws was to
King was supreme head of C of E ensure existing laws were reinterpreted to
Court of Star Chamber achieve new laws
Members of PC picked by the King Could not sentence someone to death ­ had to
Could remove cases go through parliament to do it
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Defendants could be questioned in William Laud makes a lot of decisions ­ more
private control than Charles
Court was able to inflict fines, Council of the North only dealt with Northern
imprisonment & corporal punishment families
Out of public eye ­ can's damage his
Govt. relied on unpaid officials to maintain
image
King's peace
Court of high commission
Charles called upon local govt.…read more

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Charles I
1629, Lord president of the council of the north
1631, Lord deputy of Ireland
Ruthless efficiency & effective authoritarian govt.
What was `thorough' and why did it cause so much opposition?
Govt. looked closely at the actions of the officials
Held them responsible for their oversights & mistakes
Make structures of Church
Govt.…read more

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Catholic Irish, Old English & New English all taxed the same ­ all `belong' to the King
Old English very angry ­ had own personal slave trade
Made a big profit for himself
Doesn't cause personal rule to fail ­ in Ireland
But scared it could happen in England too
It worked so well that people feared it would happen in England
How did the King alienate his natural supporters?
Two general theories
Personal rule ended because...…read more

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Threw them in jail
Finally, Beckington submitted to uniformity
Effects on Personal Rule
Opposition to Charles' policies
Didn't necessarily need parliament
Tried to get rid of Laud
Religion
Ship money, 1637
Opponents of Charles' finance searched for a case which tested its legality
John Hampden
Resistance encouraged by Lord Saye & Sele
Nonparliamentary taxation
Enormous public interest
Income of tax slowed during trial
Picked up again afterwards
Didn't deny refusing to pay tax
King had right to make people pay ship money when Kingdom was…read more

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Many hoped to convert England to Presbyterian
Ireland
Mainly Catholic
Privy council & parliament answerable to English privy council
Lord Deputy of Ireland ruled like a viceroy
In the name of the King of England
England
Mainly Anglican
Catholics in North & Midlands
Many Puritans ­ East Anglia, Somerset
Dominant of British Isles
Weak compared to Spain & France
Stuarts wanted to unite Kingdom
Prayer Book Rebellion in Scotland
Charles visited Scotland ­ new prayer book, 1633
Laud to do with this also
Bring Scotland's…read more

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Private gifts & dwindling ship money
Lack of communication with local parliament ­ started to stop working
King's mistakes
Frighten Scots with Spanish foreign powers
Catholic army provoke open rebellion
Spain's army marched from port to port across Southern England
Unpopularity of war
Leading Puritans ­ Lord Saye & Sele and Lord Brooke
Not only ones who thought cause unjust
No desire to fight Scotland ­ unpopular policies in England itself
The Short Parliament
Why did Charles call the Short Parliament?
June 1639 ­ Loses…read more

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Desertion
Covenanters were cooperating with opponents of Personal Rule in Parliament
24th Sept 1640 ­ Council of Peers ­ call Parliament
21st Oct 1640 ­ Treaty of Ripon ­ pay Scots £850 a day, called P, Scots keep Newcastle
Nov 1640 ­ Charles called Long Parliament
What caused Civil War?
What were P's aims?
P rule never happens again
Religious reform ­ stronger Protestant Church
Punish councellors who misled the King ­ free victims of their actions
Strafford's Execution
Beginning of Long P
K's ministers…read more

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Group of army & King plotting coup d'etat
Angered by P's treatment of King
Planned army south to London ­ free S & dissolve P
Tower well defended ­ failed
S life now in King's hand
Why did the King sign S's death warrant?
Greatest sin of his life
Signed it on same day he signed Act which prevented him dissolving P
Emotional pressure
Army plot ­ brink of civil war
Crowds gathered outside whitehall palace
Safety of his family
Sacrifice S in interests of…read more

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Why did the Irish Rebellion increase chances of civ war
C wouldn't have wanted to give up army
P going too far ­ join C ­ sympathetic
G Remonstrance could backfire on Pym
How did the creation & publication of G Remonstrance push K & P towards civ war?
Grand Remonstrance ­ Nov 1641
List of grievances & complaints outstanding in 1641
Made by Pym & others ­ believed MPs failing to be united
Made to see who woul dhave control of army
Passed by…read more

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