• Created by: Yasmetron
  • Created on: 03-03-23 14:30
define self-esteem
an attitude regarding oneself. It refers to an evaluation of the self, and his or her personal worth or value.
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define self-concept
definitions of one’s sense of self
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define self-efficacy
belief in one’s abilities
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what is the link between self-esteem and narcissism?
Measures often do not distinguish between narcissism and self esteem as they both refer to a positive self-evaluation although they are qualitatively different.
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examples of low self-esteem
- less clear self-conceptions
- set unrealistic goals/shy away from goals
- remembers past negatively/negative moods
- pessimistic
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examples of high self-esteem
- clear sense of self
- set appropriate goals
- savour past experiences/think positively
- optimistic
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what are the problems with self-esteem research?
o Evidence weak with very low correlations and also inconsistent findings were found.
o Issues of causality
o No evidence of an epidemic of low self-esteem
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define trait self-esteem
typical, average evaluation of the self across time
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define state self-esteem
moment-to-moment fluctuations in self evaluation
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what is the self-esteem scale?
Rosenberg self-esteem scale (1965) – asks people how they feel about themselves right now.
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How does threat impact self-esteem?
- decreases self-esteem temporarily
(Heatherton & Polivy, 1991) found that there is a decrease in self-esteem from baseline to being informed about upcoming difficult exam. In addition, as people performed worse in the exam, people’s self-esteem decreases
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define self-handicapping
the process whereby a person creates or chooses obstacles to behaviour or a performance setting for the purpose of protecting self-esteem in response to an esteem-threatening situation.
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What is contingent self-esteem?
• we stake our self-worth in particular domains.
• self-esteem is contingent upon successes and failures we experience in those domains.
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what did Crocker et al. (2003) find?
• When you choose something to engage in, you pursue more activities in it to increase self-worth. e.g.,
o Academic – studying.
o Appearance – partying, shopping, grooming.
o Virtue – volunteering.
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what is self-verification?
prefer information that confirms self-view.
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what is self-enhancement
motive to develop a favourable self-view and avoid negative self-views
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what is self-affirmation?
cope with threat by affirming self in alternative domains
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what is fluid compensation?
To alleviate negative emotions and restore meaning, individuals would perform a series of compensatory behaviours. The fluid compensation hypothesis suggests that, when one's meaning system gets compromised, they may not respond to this threat in a direct
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how does culture impact self-esteem?
o Correlation between self-esteem and life satisfaction stronger in individualistic cultures (Diener & Diener, 1995) - In western society the need for self-achievement and confidence plays a larger role.
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what did (Kityama & Karasawa, 1997) find?
o Japanese students – implicit self-esteem - implying there is cultural dictation however it is just more hidden in some countries
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define culture
socially constructed & consensually validated set of norms, beliefs, assumptions and values
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how can autonomy be impacted by self-esteem?
self-esteem is not doing things for own sake, but approval of others. To get validation from others diminishes our intrinsic pursuits. You may give up on things due to being persuaded by someone else not to pursue it
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how can competence be impacted by self-esteem?
mistakes, failure, criticism become threats rather opportunities for growth.
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how can relatedness be impacted by self-esteem?
can lead to defensiveness and distancing, as well as being too self-absorbed. We like to be part of a group or be in a relationship however our self-esteem tries to distance e.g., due to feedback that we don’t like to hear, or not listening to other peopl
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how can physical health be impacted by self-esteem?
pursuit can be stressful, may derive self-esteem from unhealthy behaviours.
Bases of self-worth should be realistic, flexible and widely attainable – there are many people that suffer with anxiety and depression, it can be interpreted that this is due to
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what is terror management theory?
we need to have some anxiety management system to buffer the anxiety and stop us worrying completely about death as it is inevitable, but this also makes us live more as we know that life is precious.
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what is sociometer theory?
proposes that self-esteem is a psychological gauge of the degree to which people perceive that they are relationally valued and socially accepted by other people.
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define self-concept


definitions of one’s sense of self

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define self-efficacy


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what is the link between self-esteem and narcissism?


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examples of low self-esteem


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