Self esteem

who was a crucial figure in defining self esteem
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what was his first definition
average tone of self feeling
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who made the most famous self esteem scale
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How does Rosenthals scale related to James' definition
it focuses on satisfaction with self
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give an example item
'i feel that i have a number of good qualities'
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what is a con of this scale
does not focus on why
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what was James' second definition
Self esteem = success / pretension
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what is pretension
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the formula possess the ability to go up and and down in two ways, name them
increase success OR lower pretensions
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who made a theory that is related to this definition
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what was the name of the theory
Self-discrepenacy theory
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what 3 selves does Higgins recognise
Actual, Idea, Ought
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when is self esteem highest
when actual self is closest to ideal and ought self
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what are two types self esteem
Implicit and Explicit
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implicit cognitions are ______ and _______
Unconscious, automatic
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Explicit cognitions are _______ and _________
Conscious, reflexive
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what do we call self esteem that refers to them both
Global self esteem
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name 3 ways to test implicit self esteem
1. reaction time task on association between positive words and self 2. preference for letters in the alphabet in ones own name 3. preference for numbers in ones own birthday
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these measures have what con
they do not correlated well with each other
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what might this suggest
there is more than one type of implicit self esteem
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there are __________ and _________ views of ___ and ___ self esteem
Traditional, Alternative, high and low
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what is the traditional view of high self esteem
positive, security
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what is the traditional view of low self esteem
negative, insecurity, psychological damage
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what is the alternative view of high self esteem
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what is the alternative view of high low esteem
neutral evaluation, cautious
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how would we go about finding origins of self esteem
measure self esteem, measure life situation
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who did work on this
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She found that _________ in _________ domains correlated at __ with self esteem, whereas __________ in _________ domains correlated at __ with self esteem
self evaluations, in important domains, 0.7. self evaluations, in unimportant domains, 0.3.
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what was the most important domain
physical appearance
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what was the maximum correlated found for physical appearance rating and self-esteem
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what else did Harter look for
mediator variables
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draw the two mediator models
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what can we infer from this
high self esteem is not just based upon what the individual thinks is an important domain, but what others surrounding the individual thinks is a supported domain
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who gave evidence to dispute this claim
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never found personal importance of domain as a mediator
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Becker et al found what mediator
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what is a problem with all of this research
its correlational
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Name 5 self enhancement strategies
self serving bias in attribution, upward and downward comparisons, better-than-average effect, basking in reflected glory, prejudice
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what type of functions do self enhancement strategies serve
self-enhancement and self-protection
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self enhancement strategies are used ________
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who made a bold statement about cultures relationship with self esteem
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what was it
maybe self-esteem is not a universal thing, and only some cultures have it, mainly western
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draw the distribution for Canadian scores from rosenthals self-esteem scale
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draw the distribution for Japanese scores from rosenthals self-esteem scale
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_____ are more likely to use self enhancement strategies and __________ are less likely
Western cultures, Eastern cultures
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who disputes this claim
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based on what principle
measurement of self enhancement strategies is focusing on purely individualistic traits
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what self enhancement strategy did she study
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what traits did they study
individualist and collectivist
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who did they study
American participants and Japenese-american participants
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what did they find
Americans all thought they were 'better-than-average' on individualist traits and japenese all thought they were 'better than average' on collectivist traits
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there is also a difference in ___ self enhances in cultures
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When discussing success' and failures, Japanese students made _________ attributions, but said that their close ones would make ________ attributions about the same events
self-effacing, self-enhancement
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americans that scored __ on modesty scored __ on implicit self esteem
high, low
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Japanese that scored __ on modesty scored __ on implicit self esteem
high, high
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why might this be
Japanse culture values modesty
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what type of influence might self esteem have
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type of biological influence
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the genetic influence may work through _____ e.g _____
values, physical appearance
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what type of implications does self esteem have
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this stems from what ideology
the higher the self esteem the better treatment of others
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Brandon believed all psychologiscal orders could be explain by what
low self-esteem
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these types of ideologies led to what
californian task force
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how big was their budget
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what is the big question
why do we have self esteem
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name two theories that explain why
terror management theory and sociometer theory
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what is terror management theories main idea
humans are aware of their own mortality, this is so terrifying we may become paralysed with the fear
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what two things buffer this fear
personalised cultural world views and self-esteem
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explain the personalized cultural world view
understanding the world, identifying values
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explain the self esteem
feeling from excelling in the values
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who gave evidence on self esteems effect on anxiety
Stauman et al
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what type of participants were studied
anxious, dysphoric and control
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what happened to the participants
they were primed with their ought selfs and ideal selfs compared to their actual self
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how did the anxious p respond
with anxiety, higher cortisol level, weaker immune system
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how did the dysphoric p respond
with dysphoria, weakened immune system
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what is more evidence to suggest that self esteem and anxiety are related
inducing high self esteem can buffer anxiety from an expected electric shock
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what is more evidence to suggest that self esteem and anxiety are related
when you remind people of their mortality, they increase their self esteem skills and defend ones cultural view
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what hypothesis is the sociometer theory connected to
Belongingness hypothesis
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what is the belongingness hypothesis
human beings have a desire to form and maintain lasting, positive and significant interpersonal relationships
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self esteem is doing what
measuring how well we're belonging
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if we measure low belonging then what
promotes relationship protecting behaviour
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state self-esteem refers to what
self esteem felt in a moment
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trait self-esteem refers to what
self esteem felt due to personality variables
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state self esteem is affected by what
inclusion and exclusion
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trait self esteem is affected by what
positive or negative perceptions about us from others
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more evidence to support this theory is that _____ events affect self esteem more than _____ events
social/public, private
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leary said all negative outcomes of low self esteem are connected with what
real, anticipated or imagined rejection
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give 3 examples
eating disorders, risky sexual behaviour, substance abuse
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what are the 5 negative outcomes of self esteem
poorer mental health, poorer physical health, more criminality, causes depression, worser job prospects
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what are things called to help us keep up self esteem
positive illusions
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who came up with positive illusions
Taylor and brown
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what are 3 positive illusions
unrealistic positive view of self, exaggerated personal control, unrealistic optimism
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what is an example of unrealistic positive views of self
the better-than-average effect
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what is an example of exaggerated control
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these postivie views are ______- apart from in ______ people
widespread/common, depressed
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what 3 things to positive illusions promote
happiness, ability to care for others, more creative and productive work
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who went against taylor and brown
Colin and Block
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what were Coling and block 5 questions
are these positive illusions as prevalent as you say they are? are they even an illusion? ow can you tell whos lying? what about long term effect? are they better for mental health?
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which type of people have extremely high use of positive illusions
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colin and block therefore conducted a study to identify what
who was self enhancing
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how did they do this
asked participants to rate their own personality and then either friends or expects rated their personalities
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however, what question still prosed problem
who is an illusion and what is reality
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in this experiment the illusion is defined as what
disagreement with 'social reality'
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what were their findings
friends and experts disliked/hold negative views of the people who self enahnce more
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people who score high on self enhancement also score high on ______ and low on ______ scales
ego brittleness, ego resilience
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however this data might be what
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Taylor and Brown clarify what 3 things
1. look, positive illusions still have benefits 2. yes they may not be amazing but 3. accuracy is not necessary for mental health
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what are still 3 problems in this research
reality vs allusion, mental health and long term effects
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so can we conclude that high self esteem may not always be positive
no, not only that, it might actually be negative
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what is the conventional view on the relationship between self esteem and agression
people suffering from low self esteem are more likley to be aggresive
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however who disputed this
Baumeister e tal
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who did they suggest might be more aggressive
high self esteemers
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threat to self esteem provokes agression
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Kernis et al measured self esteem, anger and what?
stability of self esteem
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how does the level of self esteem, high or low, effect aggression
it doesnt
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what does
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who had the highest anger
high unstable
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who had the lowest anger
low unstable
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Baumeistere et al continued to look at what
documentation from people that had commited criminal activity
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they found no evidence of what
low self esteem before the offence
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they did find low self esteem after, why might this be
guilt or tactics
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they also found what about the offence itself
high self-esteem and offence was usually in retaliation of threat to self esteem
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what is a term used in conjuction with high self esteem
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Baumesiter et al got participants to fill out self esteem and naricissits scores and then what
write an essay
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what was the manipulation
either positively or negative evaluated by the evaluator
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then what happened
competition game against random third party OR evaluator
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they had access to what in competition
noise weapon
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which 3 people were more likely to be aggressive
males, narcisscits, people that got negative feedback (Ego threat)
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what condition interactions was the most interesting
narcissists + ego threat
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they showed targetted aggression towards evaluator
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what about self esteem effects on aggression
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what is still ap roblem with all of the narcissism reserach
do we really understand what narcissim is?
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Card 2


what was his first definition


average tone of self feeling

Card 3


who made the most famous self esteem scale


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Card 4


How does Rosenthals scale related to James' definition


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


give an example item


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