Week 4

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  • Created by: Shannon
  • Created on: 29-03-16 11:42
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  • Week 4: Self Esteem
    • definition
      • Our sense of personal self worth
        • Can be an enduring trait and transitory state
    • Common Assumptions
      • - Low self esteem = crime and violence
      • Low self-esteem = self destructive behaviour
      • Low self-esteem = poor educational attainment
      • Raising self-esteem of vulnerable groups = social vaccine = less social problems
      • Raised self-esteem = happy and successful life
      • Effective parenting = promoting child's self-esteem
    • Influences of Self-esteem
      • How we believe people perceive us
        • Experiences of social ostracism
          • defintion of social ostracism
            • Whether you are left out of things / rejected or accepted by peers
      • Social comparison
        • Our values of ourselves through comparison with other peopel
          • Downward social comparison
            • Comparing ourselves with people who are inferior to us
          • Upward social comparison
            • Comparing ourselves with people who are superior to us
      • Real VS Ideal self
    • Different kinds of self-esteem
      • Global self-esteem
        • Our general evaluation of ourselves
          • Our overall sense of self-worth
            • Most common measure of Global self-esteem = ROSENBERG SELF-ESTEEM SCALE (On revision sheet)
              • GSE increased from adolescence to adulthood (peak at 50) - Orth et al
                • Declines in old age
                • Low GSE = develop depressive symptoms
                  • Academic achievement relates more to self control than esteem
                    • Baumeister
      • Domain specific self-eteem
        • Our evaluation of specific aspects of ourselves
          • Susan Harter 8 domain specific (on revision sheet)
      • Cultural differences (Becker)
        • Western (Individualistic)
          • Competence and Abilities
          • Eastern (Collectivist)
            • Social acceptance and close friends
      • Contingent and Non-contingent self esteem
        • The extent to which our sense of worth depends upon - approval of others and meeting particular standards
          • Non contingent
            • Relatively stable and inner directed sense of self-worth
            • Contingent
              • Influenced by failure or success in particular domains and opinions of others
      • Explicit and implicit self-esteem
        • Explicit
          • Conscious, public self-evaluation
            • Implicit
              • Automatic
                • Unconcious self-evaluation
              • Liking our own name
                • Implicit measure of global self-esteem
    • Protecting and enhancing self-esteem
      • Self-serving atrributes
        • Claim credit for our success
          • Deny responsibility for our failures
            • External attribution
            • Lau and Russell (1980) - Attribution in the Sports Pages
              • Wins: 80% explanations attributed to internal factors (ability and teamwork)
                • Losses: 80% attributed to external factors (weather, cheating)
          • Internal attribution
      • Unrealistic optimism
        • Assume that future outcomes for oursleves will be better than the present. Bad things are less likely
      • Illusory superiority
        • Better than average effect = BTAE
          • Better than average on positive attributes
            • Below average on negative characteristics
              • Common in Western cultures
        • Sedikides et al: Behind bars but above the bar
          • Male prisoners rated themselves as higher than average on pro-social characteristics
      • Positive illusion of our possessions
        • The endowment effect
      • Positive illusions of our children
      • Positive illusions of our romantic partners
      • Positive illusions of the groups to which we belong
    • High self-esteem
      • Unrealistic optimism can lead us to engage in risky activities
      • Self-serving attrributes
        • protect us from the negative effects of failture
        • Leads to counter productive behaviour
          • External attributions for bad coursework mark can prevent us from learning from our mistakes
    • Narcissim
      • Very high self-esteem
        • Assumption of personal superiority
      • Fragile ego
        • Contingenet on opinions of others
      • High explicit self esteem but low implicit self-esteem
      • Highly competitive, Self aggrandizing and self promoting
      • Hyper sensitive
        • Can react violently to the source of actual or implied insult or disrespect
          • Narcisstic rage
    • Paul et al (2000) - Hookups
      • Girls with higher self-esteem aged 11 are more likely to have sex by age 15 and more sexual partners by age 21
        • Less likely to use contraception
    • Youth offending
      • Committed property offences = low academic self-esteem
        • commit offences alone = low social self esteem
          • Bully = high levels of self-esteem = little empathy
    • Non-violent sexual offending
      • Low social and relationship self-esteem
        • Low GSE and poor self-regulation

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