Samuel&Bryant

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  • Created by: jessie
  • Created on: 01-02-14 11:07
what is the aim of the Samuel&Byrant study?
to challenge Piaget's findings by altering the method that Piaget used
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what type of an experiment was the study?
a laboratory experiment
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what type of design was it?
an independent measures design
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what was the sample of the experiment
252 boys and girls between the ages of 5 and 8.5
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where were they selected from?
schools and play groups
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how were they chosen?
opportunity sampling
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how were they divded
into four age groups whose mean ages were 5 years 3 months, 6 years 3 months, 7 years 3 months and 8 years and 3 months
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what were the conditions of the experiment?
standard, one judgement and fixed array control
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what did the standard condition consist of?
the child being asked about the size of the object before and after the shape was changed
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what did the one judgement condition consist of?
only one question about the post transformation question
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what did the fixed array control condition consist of?
the child only saw the post - transformation display.
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what were the three different types of material used for the conservation tasks?
mass, number and volume
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what did the mass task consist of?
the changing shape of playdoh
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what did the number task consist of?
the number of counters that the child could see
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what did the volume task consist of?
the changing shape of the beakers that the liquid was held in
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what were the independent variables of the experiment?
the four age groups and the three kinds of materials used
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what was the dependent variable?
the number of errors made by the children
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what was a conclusion made from the results of the experiment?
the children found the one judgement task significantly easier than the standard conservation task and the fixed array control
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what else did they find out?
there was a significant difference between the age groups with older groups doing consistently better than the younger
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what explanation did they give for why the children made fewer mistakes on the one judgement task compared to the standard conservation task?
they believe that in the standard conservation task, the pre - transformation question is unwittingly forcing the child to give the wrong answer by asking the same question twice
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what do Samuel& Bryant demonstrate?
that the tasks used by Piaget actually made it difficult for children to give the correct answers and demonstrate that children below an age of seven can conserve
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what do they advocate?
a cognitive approach to child development
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what did they found?
that older children did do significantly better than younger children on the conservation tasks
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what else did the discover just like Piaget?
children could conserve number before they could conserve mass and volume tasks
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what was the main strength of their experiment?
the amount of control they had over possible confounding variables
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what was a weakness of the experiment?
on the number task the children could have counted the number of counters used and this could account for the level of accuracy on the task
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what other weaknesses were there ?
the children could have felt nervous doing the tasks and therefore resulted in the answers being spontaneous rather than thought out
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what did Samuel and Bryant argue?
that Piaget's theory of cognitive development places too much emphasis on maturational factors
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what did they criticise Piaget for?
emphasising how children do not learn in isolation and that they learn far more readily and efficiently when they are working together rather than alone
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what type of an experiment was the study?

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a laboratory experiment

Card 3

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what type of design was it?

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Card 4

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what was the sample of the experiment

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Card 5

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where were they selected from?

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