Samuel and Bryant

Samuel and Bryant

Samuel and Bryant

                    Critical of Piaget's experiment of conservation as children were                   more likley to give wrong answer when question asked twice.

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Participants

Participants 

  • 225 boys and girls 
  • variety of schools in devon
  • 4 groups by age = (5years + 3 months/  6years + 3 months/  7years + 3 months/  8years + 3 months)
  • Subdivided into 3 groups of 21
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Method

Method 

  • 3 independent variables = 1. type of questionin
  • Lab experiment

3 experimental conditions =

  •  1. standard (same as Piaget)
  • One judgement (asked after)
  • Fixed array (children shown after transformation)
  • 84 children in each condition (good comparison of age)
  • Children only tested in one condition but tested 3 times on= counters for number/  Plasticine for mass/  Liquid in glass for volume
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Results

Results 

Variable 1 - type of questioning:

  • All age groups made fewer errors in the one-judgement condition
  • Fixed array condition = highest number of errors

Variable 2 - age: 

  • Older children = fewer mistakes 

Variable 3 - type of task:

  • children made fewer errors on conservation of mass task and most erros on conservation of volume 
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Conclusion

Conclusion 

  • Hypothesis that children make more mistakes when asked question twice is supported
  • Piaget was not entirely negated 
  • Childrens conservation skills improve with age and conservatiomn of number is easier than other 2 tasks 
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Evaluation

Evaluation 

Strengths:

  • high levels of control
  • reduced order effects by independent measures design 

Weaknesses:

  • Lack of ecological validity 
  • individualk differences

Uses

  • Implications for teaching of children and in child psychology 
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