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Samuel and Bryant (1984)


The aim of the study was to test whether the methodology used in Piaget's conservation
experiments was the reason why children under 8 years old made errors, rather than a true lack of
understanding of conservation.

Information on experiment

This was a laboratory experiment

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asked the
· Each children carried out the three different conservation tasks using different materials;
o Counters for number
o Plasticine for mass
o Liquid in a glass for volume
· They had four trials on each material, making a total of 12 trails

Independent Variables

There were three…

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The hypothesis that children make more errors because they are asked the question twice is
However, this evidence does not entirely negate Piaget's theory
This study confirms that children's conservation skills improve with age and also that
conservation of number is easier than volume or mass


Children can…


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