Respiratory System

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Name parts of the respiratory system
Pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchii, lung, intercostal muscles, ribs, alveoli, bronchiole, diaphragm
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How is oxygen transported?
93% within oxyhaemoglobin, 7% within plasma
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How is carbon dioxide transported?
70% in carbonic acid, 23% within haemoglobin, 7% in plasma
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What is the breathing rate?
The number of inspirations and expirations per minute
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What is the average resting breathing rate?
12 - 15
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What is tidal volume?
The volume of air inspired or expired in one breath
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What is the average resting tidal volume?
500ml
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What amount of volume reaches which areas?
350ml reaches alveoli, 150ml remains in lungs
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What is minute ventilation?
The volume of air inspired or expired per minute
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What is the equation for respiratory system?
f x TV = VE
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What is average resting minute ventilation?
7500ml
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What is breathing rate response to exercise?
Increases in proportion to exercise, reaches 50-60 breaths per min
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What is tidal volume response to exercise?
Increases in proportion, plateau during sub max cos lungs can't refill quick enough, max 3 litres
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What is minute ventilation response to exercise?
Anticipatory rise, rapid increases, steady state when supply + demand, gradual decrease. Doesn't plateau - has to keep up with gas exchange
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What are the mechanics of inspiration at rest?
External intercostals contract + pull ribcage out, diaphragm flattens to increase lung volume and decrease pressure
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What are the mechanics of inspiration during exercise?
Larger force on contraction created by sternocleidomastoid and pectoralis minor
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What are the mechanics of expiration at rest?
External intercostals relax and lower ribcage, diaphragm relaxes to decrease lung pressure + volume - passive process
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What are the mechanics of expiration during exercise?
Larger contraction created by internal intercostals and rectus abdominus
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How is respiratory system controlled?
RCC in medulla oblongata - IC controls inspiration, EC controls expiration
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How is respiration controlled at rest?
Nerve impulses control contraction - intercostal nerve and phrenic nerve to diaphragm. Expriation is passive
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How is respiration controlled during exercise?
Chemoreceptors detect CO2 increase/O2 decrease, thermoreceptors detect blood temp, propriorecpetors detect movement, barorecpetors informs state of lung inflation
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Where does gaseous exchange take place?
Alveoli
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What is capillarisation?
Exercise causes body to adapt and use more capillaries
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What causes gaseous exchange?
Partial pressures
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What is the dissociation curve at rest?
30% oxygen dissociated, 70% associated
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What is the dissociation curve during exercise?
70% dissociated, 30% associated
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What shift happens during exercise?
Bohr shift - left
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Name 2 lifestyle diseases from lack of exercise
Asthma, COPD
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Card 2

Front

How is oxygen transported?

Back

93% within oxyhaemoglobin, 7% within plasma

Card 3

Front

How is carbon dioxide transported?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is the breathing rate?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is the average resting breathing rate?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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