Impact of training on lifestyle diseases- Respiratory System

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  • Impact of training on lifestyle diseases- Respiratory System
    • Asthma
      • Characterised by constriction of the bronchial airways and inflammation of the mucous membranes, which restrict the airways and limit breathing.
      • Symptoms of shortness of breath, wheezing and coughing are seen in response to drying of the airway membranes or presence of an allergen.
      • Asthma can also be exercise-induced when the air is cold and dry such as winter sports and ice-based sports and swimming due to pollutants in the water.
      • The use of inhalers, warm-ups and respiratory muscle training means athletes are no longer forced to not perform.
    • Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)
      • COPD is an umbrella term for several conditions of the lungs where the airways become inflamed and narrow.
      • Over time, the inflammation leads to permanent changes:
        • Thickening of the bronchiole walls, increased mucus production, damage to the alveoli and a decrease in lung tissue elasticity.
      • COPD includes severe asthma, chronic bronchitis and emphysema.
      • Symptoms of persistent coughing, breathing difficulty, regular chest infections and reduced lung capacity lead to an inability to exercise and reduced quality of life.
    • The effects of training
      • Smoking is the biggest risk factor for developing respiratory disease.
        • However, leading a sedentary lifestyle will limit the use of the lower lobes of the lung tissue, increasing the risk of infection.
      • Regular Training can:
        • Maintain full use of lung tissue and elasticity, decreasing the risk of infection associated with COPD.
        • Decrease resting and sub-maximal frequency of breathing, reducing the onset of fatigue and making everyday tasks easier.
        • Increase the surface area of alveoli and pulmonary capillaries, maximising the efficiency of gaseous exchange and the health of respiratory membranes.
        • Increase respiratory muscle strength, which decreases respiratory effort.
        • With the use of inspiratory muscle training, increase airflow and alleviate breathlessness, reducing the necessity for medication and enhancing quality of life.

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