random exam style q's (cgp)

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example of semi-presidential system
russia - presidential republic. france too. executive power shared between elected president and appointed prime minister. however russia; weak democratic performance due to weak no-confidence abilities but france strong dem performance.
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3 advantages of pres. system + what it is
democratic + repub system of gov't - preisdent head of state. 1. direct elections 2. separation of powers 3. stability from virtue of fixed term
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definition of presidentialisation of politics
pol systems operating at presidential logic irrespective of formal constitutional make up
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"coming federalims vs holding together
CT- independent states coming together to form bigger unit. security by pooling sovereignty + retaining identity e.g. switzerland, australia + usa. HT - large power divides power between constituent states/ nat govt. units of fed poss unequal powers
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"race to bottom" in tax policy federal system
states try to undrbid each other in lowering tatxes. more attractive to outside financial interests/unattractive to unwanted. common remedy urged: harmonization
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opposite argument on race to bottom in environmental standards
argued lax environmental standards is attractive to business. opposing view however: spillover effect from global environmental standards - one action effects another.
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federal postcode lottery
services are available to different degrees in different areas. e.g. with canada's supposedly 'national' health service systems. also could be used as policy laboratories
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change in electoral systems effect on policy outcomes
no consensus in the research. Kazenstein argued relation between PR + open trade policies. Ehrlich - PR leads to lower tariffs from strong party discipline + small no. of electoral districts. PR gvts spend on educ/welfare & less on roads/agric subsid
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effect on party system
FPTP = two-party system. duvergers law - plurality-rule elections favour 2. but in UK winners rarerly get 2/3s of vote + even more extreme in India. dead parrot?
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other effects
party system also affects electoral system.
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open primary
voters don't need to be affiliated with a political party in order to vote for partisan candidate. can be viewed as good for voter participation, as allows nonpartisan to vote. but also bad if voters have less incentive to join one of the parties
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impacts of pres systems on gov't from experience
usually restricts pres to 1/2 terms in office. usually high minimum age for experience. pres become dependent on legislature = US pres power of persuasion. BUT south korea office of PM responsible to pres rather than legislature.
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more effects of pres systems
pres need to gain maj support on issue-by-issue basis. not always effect govt. a lot of haven't worked. US & Costa Rica since 1949 - 2 of few examples. most pres' elected by popular vote, other methods e.g elec college. sep of pow = res to change
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decrease in presidentialization
assoc with dom figures: thatcher, blair + berlusconi. 'de facto' preside.. dowding (2013) argues growing prime ministerliazation. pres style dependent on contingent factors - size/cohesion of p'mentary, + public support. p'lities, 'events, dear boy'
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2013pres. econt.
pres of exec power doesn't mean more legislative power. in US pres might govern through ad hoc coalition in congress or like reagan use public appeal to 'force their will' upon legislature. long term or strucutral? - reduced collective-decision? bila
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Card 2

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3 advantages of pres. system + what it is

Back

democratic + repub system of gov't - preisdent head of state. 1. direct elections 2. separation of powers 3. stability from virtue of fixed term

Card 3

Front

definition of presidentialisation of politics

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

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"coming federalims vs holding together

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

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"race to bottom" in tax policy federal system

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Preview of the front of card 5
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