Psychology PSYA1 - Memory Researchers

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  • Created by: Stacy
  • Created on: 12-05-14 18:31
Bahrick et al
70% accurate recall of yearbook photos after 48 years
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Shepard
showed Ps 612 memorable photos - able to remember 50% 4 months later
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Peterson & Peterson
nonsense trigram followed by 3 digits, 90% remembered after 3s, 2% remembered for 18s
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Marsh et al
duration of STM may only be 2s if no expectation of recall
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Nairne et al
items could be recalled after as long as 96s if items were the same across all trials
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Joseph Jacobs
capacity - 9.3 digits, 7.3 letters
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Miller
7+/-2 chunks
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Simon
Size of chunk matters
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Cowan
STM may only be limited to 4 chunks
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Baddeley
acoustically similar words decrease STM recall + semantically similar decrease LTM recall
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Brandimote
visual encoding in STM if given a visual task and verbal rehearsal is prevented
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Frost
visual encoding in LTM (as well as semantic)
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Atkinson & Shiffrin
The MSM
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Sperling
Grid of digits + letters shown for 50ms, recall was poorer for whole thing (42%) than 1 row (75%)
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Glazner & Cunitz
list of 20 words - remembered start + end due to rehearsal and words still being in STM
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Case Study: HM
Damage to Hippocampus (gateway to LTM) could not form new LT memories
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Case Study: KF
Difficulty with verbal info but not visual in STM (isn't a single store)
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Schachter et al
4 STM stores; procedural, episodic and semantic memory and PRS.
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Craik & Lockhart
Memories created by processing rather than rehearsal
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Craik & Tulving
developed elaborative rehearsal - found that deeper processing leads to enhanced memory
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Logie
STM cannot come 'first' as it relies on LTM
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Ruchkin et al
STM is part of the LTM activated at any given time
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Baddeley & Hitch
The WMM
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Hitch & Baddeley
2 tasks involving the same component cause difficulty
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Bunge et al
brain scans showed increased activity for dual tasks
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Baddeley
sentences better than unrelated words for immediate recall
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Case Study: KF
Had problems with verbal but not visual info - only phonological loop damaged
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Case Study: SC
unable to learn word pairs read out loud - damage to phonological loop
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Loftus & Palmer
7 films - 'How fast?' - 5 verbs - crashed = 41 mph, contacted = 30 mph
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Loftus et al
STOP + YIELD signs - then asked about them - 71% accurate for consistent Q, 41% accurate for misleading Q
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Bekerian & Bowers
repeated Loftus but gave slides in original order - recall same for all
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Yuille & Cutshall
found post-event info did not affect EWT accuracy in real life
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Deffenbacher et al
meta-analysis 18 studies - stress negatively impacted on accuracy
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Christianson & Hubinette
stress may enhance accuracy - those threatened in a bank robbery were more accurate
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Johnson & Scott
The weapon-focus effect - pen condition 49% accurate, knife condition 33% accurate
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Loftus et al
Monitored eye witnesses eye movements in WFE
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Parker & Carranza
primary school students more likely to answer, college students more likely to be right
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Yarmey
stopped 651 Ps and asked them to identify woman, 18-29 + 30- 44 more confident, but no sig. diff. in accuracy to 45-65s
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Memon
when delay between incident + recall was short, 16-33s + 60-82s no diff. but when long, olders sig. less accurate
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Anatasia & Rhodes
3 age groups shown 24 photos. 18-25s + 35-45s more accurate, but all were most accurate in own age group.
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Kohnken
increase of 34% in accuracy of CI compared to SI.
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Milne & Bull
1 component used, recall same for all 4 - 2+ used, recall sig. better
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Kebbel + Wagstaff
problem with CI in practice - needed for time than avaliable
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Gruneberg
30% psychology students used mnemonics
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Glidden et al
Mnemonics proven to help children with learning difficulites
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O'Hara
Mnemonics show to help the LTM of older adults
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Atkinson
Ps trained in use of keywords learned sig. more Russian vocab
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Bower et al
112 words - recall was 2/3x better when arranged into heirarchy
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Paivio
words + images processed separately - concrete words are dual coded
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Card 2

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showed Ps 612 memorable photos - able to remember 50% 4 months later

Back

Shepard

Card 3

Front

nonsense trigram followed by 3 digits, 90% remembered after 3s, 2% remembered for 18s

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

duration of STM may only be 2s if no expectation of recall

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

items could be recalled after as long as 96s if items were the same across all trials

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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