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Biological Psychology ­ Stress

The body's response to stress

The transactional model of stress sees stress as depending on primary and
secondary appraisal processes. We identify sources of stress in the environment,
and then assess our available coping resources. Stress exists when there is a
discrepancy or imbalance between the…

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One important mechanism linking stress to downregulation of the immune system is
the action of corticosteroids in reducing lymphocyte production and shrinking the
thymus gland

Chapter Summary

The transactional model defines a state of stress as occurring when there is an
imbalance between perceived demands on an individual and their…

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Personality Factors

Friedman and Rosenman first introduced the concept of Type A behaviour pattern
(TAB), a pattern that seemed to be vulnerable to stressrelated heart disease. It is
characterised by time pressure, competitiveness and hostility
Although early studies suggested a significant relationship between TAB and heart
disease, later findings were…

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Chapter Summary

Holmes and Rahe's social readjustment rating scale (SRRS) was the first attempt to
access life event stress. Early studies also suggested that life event stress was
linked to stressrelated illnesses such as heart disease
The hassles scale focuses on everyday stressors, and research suggest hassles
scores may correlate…

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Rates of conformity differ across time and cultures. They are generally lower now
than in the midtwentieth century and lower in individualistic communicate using
technologies rather than facetoface

Why do people conform?

According to the dualprocess dependency model, conformity can be explained in
terms of informational social influence and normative…

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Research into obedience has been criticised for lacking validity and for the ethical
issues it presents
There is some debate as to how far research into obedience can explain reallife
crimes of obedience

Explanations of Independent Behaviour

Psychologists have investigated situational factors in conformity, obedience and
disobedience
Disobedience is easier…

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Each in turn has limitations, and all are culturally specific
These definitions do not allow specific syndromes to be identified. This is done using
psychiatric classification systems such as DSMIVR. In DSMIVR the global
assessment of functioning scale includes elements of DSN and FFA

Biological and psychological approaches to psychopathology…

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psychopathology. In addition, some disorders may not prevent people living relatively
normal lives
Deviation from ideal mental health (DIMH) tries to define abnormality as the opposite
of ideal mental health. This definition is subjective and based very much on Western
Values. This makes it highly culturally specific
For diagnosing specific…

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Drugs were introduced for the treatment of schizophrenia in 1953. These
antipsychotic drugs reduce the activity of the neurotransmitter dopamine in the brain
and can supress symptoms of schizophrenia in up to 60% of patients. They do not
`cure' the disorder, and also have serious side effects, especially affecting movement…

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Each of the approaches to abnormality described lead to a particular form of therapy.
Issues such as effectiveness, cost, availability and side effects and ethical aspects
need to be considered in relation to therapies
Treatments based on the biological approach include drugs, electroconvulsive
therapy (ECT), psychosurgery and drugs
Drugs include…

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