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AO1 The Model Maintenance
- Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968)
Rehearsal…read more

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Sensory Memory (SM)
· Capacity ­ Limited
· Duration ­ Too limited to know
· Encoding ­ Too limited to know AO1
· Basically, SM is very limited…read more

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Short Term Memory (STM)
· Capacity ­ Miller's Magic Number (7+2) (1956)
· Participants (P's) coped with 7 dots which flashed on a screen but couldn't cope with
AO1 more
· Therefore, Miller deduced that the span of the immediate memory is 7. This is still true
for musical notes, digits, letters etc
· Miller also found that when chunking was used, P's remembered 5 words and 5 letters.
· Simon (1974) ­ said that the size of the chunks matter (Think Simon says...)
· Cowan (2001) ­ looked at different studies and said that the STM is not as extensive as
first thought but can only remember a maximum of 4 chunks
AO2 · Individual differences make Miller's Magic Number hard to generalise and cannot be
applicable to the population
· Miller's Magic Number has been used in the real world (Real world applications) such as
in post codes…read more

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Short Term Memory (STM)
· Duration ­ Peterson and Peterson's Experiment (1959)
· 24 uni students were the P's
· P's given a non-semantic trigram (e.g TPA)
AO1 · P's had to count backwards from a number for different retention intervals
(3,6,9,12,15 and 18 seconds) to prevent rehearsal
· P's remembered: 90% at 3 seconds
2% at 18 seconds
· Peterson and Peterson deduced that the duration of the STM is 20 seconds
· Marsh et al. (1997) ­ when P's were not expected, their duration was 2 seconds
AO2 · Nairne et al. (1999) ­ when P's recalled the same trigram, their STM duration
could last them up to 96 seconds. This also questions the internal validity of the
study, are Peterson and Peterson actually measuring capacity not duration?…read more

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Short Term Memory (STM)
· Encoding ­ Baddeley (1966)
· There were 4 categories (semantically dissimilar/similar and acoustically
AO1 · P's were read out 12 sets of 5 words at a rate of 1 word per second
· After each set, P's had to recall them
· In STM, acoustically similar words caused more trouble when trying to
recall them. Therefore, STM encodes acoustically.
· Brandimote et al. (1992) ­ P's were given a visual task and then prevented
from doing any rehearsal in retention intervals before having to recall
AO2 them. He argued that STM encodes visually as well.
· Wickens et al. (1976) ­ He said that STM encodes semantically.…read more

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