ABNORMALITY - PSYA2

Definitions of abnormality, approaches and therapies! - PSYA2

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DEFINITIONS OF ABNORMALITY
AO1 (6 MARKS)
PSYCHOPATHOLOGY The field in psychology that deals with mental, emotional & behavioural problems. The range of disorders classified under the term is huge,
but some well known examples are phobias, clinical depression & schizophrenia.
ABNORMALITY There is no single characteristic that applies to all instances of abnormal behaviour, so, it is very difficult to define exactly what abnormality is.
Attempts have been made to define abnormality. However, it is important to note that no single definition is adequate on its own, although each captures some aspect
of what we might consider to be a true definition.
DEVIATION FROM SOCIAL NORMS FAILURE TO FUNCTION ADEQUATELY DEVIATION FROM IDEAL MENTAL HEALTH

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Marie Jahoda suggested that we define physical illness
by looking at the absence of signs of physical health,
Behaviour which is considered anti-social so, the same idea should be used for defining mental
or undesirable by the majority of society illness .
members She conducted a review & identified 6 categories that
Social norms = explicit & implicit rules that were commonly referred to.…read more

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On a practical, everyday level, this WHO TO JUDGE WHO CAN ACHEIVE ALL SIX
definition is very useful to identify mental Individuals view of whether they are coping According to these criteria, most of us are abnormal to
problems an extent
They may be unaware of the fact they are failing to
function adequately of may be content with the Definition does not state how many we should be
SUSCEPTIBLE TO ABUSE situation & not judge it as abnormal lacking, before we can be judged…read more

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BIOLOGICAL APPROACH
AO1 (6 MARKS)
Can be treated using drugs or ECT
GENES
Abnormalities in the brain anatomy or chemistry are sometimes the result of genetic
inheritance, & so are passed from parent to child
VIRAL INFECTION
One way of investigating this possibility is by studying twins
Research suggests that some disorders (such as schizophrenia) may be
Pairs of identical twins can be compared to see whether, when one twin has a disorder,
related to exposure to certain viruses in the womb
the other has…read more

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Has led to scientific research
- REDUCTIONIST This approach attempts to explain complicated illnesses in terms of genes & chemicals... &
Genetic research to help gain better
ignores all other possible factors or approaches
understanding risk factors to some disorders (e.g.
- CAUSE & EFFECT The available evidence does not support a simple cause & effect link between mental illnesses.
depression, schizophrenia, eating disorders...)
E.g.…read more

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STRENGTHS WEAKNESSES STRENGTHS WEAKNESSES
- TREATS SYMPTOMS & NOT THE CAUSE drugs
+ EFFECTIVE reduces risk only offer a temp lessening of symptoms ­ stop
factors of the condition taking drugs = effectiveness lessens ­ for the
long run, it is better to seek a treatment that
+ CAN SAVE LIVES supporters of ECT, - SIDE EFFECTS memory loss,
addresses the problem itself, to prevent risk of
+ EASY TO USE requires less claim it is an effective treatment ­ cardiovascular changes, headaches ­
symptoms…read more

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All behaviour is learned as we interact with the work around us
It assumes our behaviour is changed & modified by the consequences of what we do
Adaptive & maladaptive behaviours are learned by the same procedures
We learn our behaviour through the processes called conditioning
Two types...…read more

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Gradual exposure to feared stimulus, until patient learns that their feared
Procedure...…read more

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AO1 (6 MARKS)
Freud believed that ...
Abnormality originates from underlying & unresolved psychological conflicts of which they are largely unaware
Abnormality originates from unresolved conflicts between the id, ego & superego ­ resulting is ego defence mechanisms to deal with these conflicts -
leading to mental disorders, if used excessively
Early childhood experiences shaped later adult life e.g. death of a parent in early life...…read more

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AO1 (6 MARKS) ­ PSYCHOANALYSIS
Psychoanalysis involves repression & unconscious mind trace unconscious factors, back to their origins & then helps the patient to deal with them ­ uses
several techniques to do so...
FREE ASSOCIATION patients say thoughts exactly as they occur, even if unimportant or irrelevant ­ designed to reveal areas of conflict & to bring into
consciousness ­ therapist helps interpret these thoughts ­ patient then corrects/rejects & adds further thoughts & feelings.…read more

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