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DEFINITIONS OF ABNORMALITY
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PSYCHOPATHOLOGY The field in psychology that deals with mental, emotional & behavioural problems. The range of disorders classified under the term is huge,
but some well known examples are phobias, clinical depression & schizophrenia.

ABNORMALITY There is no single characteristic that applies to all…

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Marie Jahoda suggested that we define physical illness
by looking at the absence of signs of physical health,
Behaviour which is considered anti-social so, the same idea should be used for defining mental
or undesirable by the majority of society illness .
members She conducted a review & identified 6…

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+ On a practical, everyday level, this WHO TO JUDGE WHO CAN ACHEIVE ALL SIX
definition is very useful to identify mental Individuals view of whether they are coping According to these criteria, most of us are abnormal to
problems an extent
They may be unaware of the fact they…

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minority ethnic groups because of the exploitation,
deprivation & harassment they may often experience.




BIOLOGICAL APPROACH
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Can be treated using drugs or ECT
GENES
Abnormalities in the brain anatomy or chemistry are sometimes the result of genetic
inheritance, & so are passed from parent to child
VIRAL…

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+ Has led to scientific research
- REDUCTIONIST This approach attempts to explain complicated illnesses in terms of genes & chemicals... &
Genetic research to help gain better
ignores all other possible factors or approaches
understanding risk factors to some disorders (e.g.
- CAUSE & EFFECT The available evidence does…

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STRENGTHS WEAKNESSES STRENGTHS WEAKNESSES
- TREATS SYMPTOMS & NOT THE CAUSE drugs
+ EFFECTIVE reduces risk only offer a temp lessening of symptoms ­ stop
factors of the condition taking drugs = effectiveness lessens ­ for the
long run, it is better to seek a treatment that
+ CAN SAVE…

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All behaviour is learned as we interact with the work around us
It assumes our behaviour is changed & modified by the consequences of what we do
Adaptive & maladaptive behaviours are learned by the same procedures
We learn our behaviour through the processes called conditioning
Two types...
- Classical…

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Gradual exposure to feared stimulus, until patient learns that their feared
Procedure...
stimulus us not so fearful after all
Learn relaxation
This therapy is based on counter-conditioning
Construct desensitisation hierarchy (scenarios/steps, each causes more anxiety
First developed by Joseph Wolpe
than the last)
Enables individuals to overcome their anxieties by…

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AO1 (6 MARKS)
Freud believed that ...
Abnormality originates from underlying & unresolved psychological conflicts of which they are largely unaware
Abnormality originates from unresolved conflicts between the id, ego & superego ­ resulting is ego defence mechanisms to deal with these conflicts -
leading to mental disorders, if used…

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AO1 (6 MARKS) ­ PSYCHOANALYSIS
Psychoanalysis involves repression & unconscious mind trace unconscious factors, back to their origins & then helps the patient to deal with them ­ uses
several techniques to do so...
FREE ASSOCIATION patients say thoughts exactly as they occur, even if unimportant or irrelevant ­ designed…

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