PSYA4 - Research Studies

Rsearchers needed for AO1 and AO2 marking.

Only done to rough notes.

inter-reliability correlations in diagnosing schizophrenia are low
1 of 169
pseudopatients - all but one admitted to hospital. 2nd time warned hospitals - 21% detection rate - none sent.
2 of 169
Once labelled people fulfill that label, and those around them do the same
3 of 169
2.1% African-Americans diagnosed, only 1.4% White Americans
4 of 169
Cope & McGovern
mental hospitals in Birmingham - 1/3 white or asian, 2/3 African-Caribbean
5 of 169
Social class bias - 0.4% upper class, 0.9% middle class, 1.9% working class
6 of 169
Culture differences - same description of patient given to US & British psychologists. 69% diagnosed in US, 2% diagnosed in UK.
7 of 169
reviewed 40 twin studies - MZ twins 48% chance of both, DZ 17%
8 of 169
MZ twins raised in different families 50% concordance
9 of 169
dopamine guides attention - may cause disruption in attention/perception
10 of 169
low level of dopamine in Parkinson's, L-dopa increases this, causes SZ symptoms
11 of 169
Johnstone et al
compared ventricle in SZs and non-SZs, SZ were larger (SZ may be linked to brain tissue loss)
12 of 169
SZ 15% bigger ventricles than non-SZ
13 of 169
Bornstein et al
SZ with large ventricles display more negative than positive symptoms
14 of 169
Copolov and Crook
meta-analysis of 90 CT scans, overlap in SZ and non-SZ size of ventricles
15 of 169
SZ result of regression to pre-ego stage attempts to re-establish ego control - defensive mechanism caused by overwhelming anxiety
16 of 169
SZ lose contact with reality to cope with social pressure
17 of 169
schizophrenogenic mothers are rejecting, overprotective, dominant and moralistic - causes SZ
18 of 169
Oltmanns et al
parents of SZ behave different to other patients parents
19 of 169
Meyer-Lindenberg et al
link between excess dopamine in pre-frontal cortex and working memory
20 of 169
Brown and Birley
prior to SZ episodes - 50% stressful life event 3 weeks prior - 12% 9 weeks prior
21 of 169
Falloon et al
high levels of physiological arousal associated with neurotransmitter levels thought to be involved in SZ
22 of 169
Os et al
reported no link in life events on onset of SZ
23 of 169
Tienari et al
adopted children with SZ bio parents were more likely to develop SZ than those with non-SZ parents. This only happened if adopted family was disturbed
24 of 169
Bateson et al
double-bind theory - children who recieve contradictory messages from parents are more likely to develop SZ. Child is wrong either way
25 of 169
SZ report higher recall of double-bind be their mothers than non-SZ
26 of 169
Linszen et al
patient returning to high expressed emotion house is 4x more likely to relapse
27 of 169
Hogarty et al
therapy where high expressed emotion taught to reduce this EE reduces relapse rates
28 of 169
social groups construct rules for groups to follow, symptoms of SZ deviate from these rules
29 of 169
label applied causes self-fulfilling prophecy promoting symptom development
30 of 169
reviewed 18 studies with labelling in, found 13 were consistent
31 of 169
30% of treated with conventional antipsychotics develop tardive dyskinesia - 75% irreversible
32 of 169
Ross & Read
taking drugs reduces their motivation to reduce own suffering
33 of 169
Davis et al
29 studies (conventional drug) - relapse rates 55% in drug replaced by placebo, 11% when continued on drugs
34 of 169
Vaughn & Leff
Conventional drugs only have a significant difference in a hostile home
35 of 169
Kapur & Remington
suggest A-typical drugs only invlove dopamine and D2 receptors
36 of 169
Jeste et al
tardive dyskinesia rates after 9 months - 30% conventional, 5% a-typical
37 of 169
Leucht et al
atypical only slightly more effective than conventional - only slightly more effective at treating negative symptoms
38 of 169
Tharyan & Adams
reviewed 26 studies - more people improved using ECT than placebo and 'sham' ECT
39 of 169
decline between 1979-1999 was 59% in ECT treatments for SZ - due to memory dysfunction, brain damage and even death
40 of 169
American Psychiatric Review
19 studies - ECT produced results no different to antipsychotic medication
41 of 169
Sarita et al
no symptom reduction between 36 SZ given ECT or simulated ECT
42 of 169
Drury et al
reduction of positive, 25-50% reduction in recovery time for patients given a combination of medication and CBT
43 of 169
Kuipers et al
reported same as Drury but also claimed lower drop-out rate
44 of 169
Gould et al
7 studies reported significant decrease in positive after CBT
45 of 169
Kingdon & Kirschen
many SZ patients not deemed suitable for CBT
46 of 169
SZ patients can't be psychoanalysed as they can't form transference - emotions associated with one person transferred to another
47 of 169
Malmberg & Fenton
say it's impossible to draw conclusions on effectiveness of psychoanalysis
48 of 169
argued some forms of psychoanalysis are harmful for SZ patients
49 of 169
37 studies - psychoanalysis is an effective treatment
50 of 169
better outcome when psychoanalysis combined with drugs than alone, drugs better than therapy
51 of 169
psychoanalysis improved more than just drugs
52 of 169
recommeds psychoanalysis as it's appropriate with drugs
53 of 169
Karon & VandenBos
psychoanalysis - less likely to seek inpatient treatment and more likely to gain employment suggesting cost decreases
54 of 169
features of anomalous research to suggest it's a pseudoscience - irrefutable hypothesis, lacks carefully controlled evidence, not reliable, published in papers
55 of 169
reported 12+ researchers in lab behaved dishonestly to gain positive results
56 of 169
watched Sargent do Ganzfeld and said he was suspicious
57 of 169
Uri Geller
bends spoons, James Randi said he was fraud doing magic tricks
58 of 169
suggests many noted scientists have invented findings or twisted them
59 of 169
developed Ganzfeld technique - Ps relaxed so receptive to psi. 28 studies - 38% success rate (25% due to chance).
60 of 169
reanalysed data and concluded no evidence of psi from Ganzfeld
61 of 169
Hyman & Honorton
created autoganzfeld which is more controlled.
62 of 169
11 autoganzfeld studies - 34% success rate
63 of 169
Milton & Wiseman
30 ganzfeld studies - no significant effects shown
64 of 169
Ganzfeld has subjective interpretation
65 of 169
Sheep-goat effect - goats score negatively on ganzfeld for psi
66 of 169
argues assumption that psi explains significant results but it may be due to something else
67 of 169
claimed people feel self-conscious about macro-PK abilities - did fake levitation to boost confidence, large displays of levitation from Ps afterwards
68 of 169
most people possess macro-PK abilities but need to prevent interference from conscious mind
69 of 169
2 magicians fooled scientists for 4 years (160 hrs) - project alpha
70 of 169
Wiseman & Greening
video of spoon bending - 1 condition person said continued to bend - Ps more likely to report bending continuing in this condition
71 of 169
Use random event generator (REG) to investigate micro-PK - coin flipper
72 of 169
Jahn et al
12 year programme with REG - combined scores above chance - two people with relationship scored higher
73 of 169
uses internet - Ps asked to influence split beam laser - higher in that group than control
74 of 169
scientists require higher proof than the weak effects that are shown
75 of 169
analysed paranormal studies - steady decline in effect size (micro-PK) if real effect would increase over time as variables can be identified and controlled
76 of 169
Wiseman & Watt
suggest that these four cognitive explanations underlie paranormal experience - general cognitive ability, finding links between distantly related materials, probability misjudgements, fantasy proneness
77 of 169
found believers have significantly lower levels of academic performance than sceptics
78 of 169
Jones et al
hasn't confirmed cognitive ability association with paranormal belief in all studies, some find the opposite
79 of 169
survey of 1500 new scientist reader, likely intelligent - 67% regarded ESP as fact or likely possibility.
80 of 169
Brugger et al
believers and non-believers shown real & scrambled faces - believers more likely to see face when there wasn't one
81 of 169
believer more creative than non-believers and may be able to detect meaningful connections
82 of 169
Brugger et al
believers underestimate statistical likelihood on probability judgement tasks
83 of 169
Musch and Ehrenberg
controlled differences in general cognitive ability and found it reduced the difference in proability judgement between believers and non-believers to zero
84 of 169
Dixon et al
found a link between belief and mental imagination (fantasy proneness)
85 of 169
Wiseman et al
mock seance where table pretended to levitate - more believers reported that it moved - fantasy proneness
86 of 169
Russell and Jones
paranormal beliefs may satisfy a psychological need
87 of 169
Williams et al
positive relationship between neuroticism and paranormal beliefs
88 of 169
Tobacyk & Mitchell
belief in paranormal due to narcissism
89 of 169
Andrews and Lester
links have not been found between depression and bipolar disorder to paranormal
90 of 169
Bentall et al
paranormal belief has similar symptoms to schizophrenia
91 of 169
Irwin and Green
link between paranormal belief and schizotypy in cognitive perceptual domain
92 of 169
Honorton et al
meta-analysis of 60 studies - positive correlation between ESP and extraversion
93 of 169
Allen and Lester
correlation between external locus of control and paranormal belief
94 of 169
Tobacyk et al
relationship between paranormal belief and locus of control depends on the type of paranormal belief
95 of 169
some forms of psi correlate positively with external locus of control, some correlate negatively
96 of 169
Davies and Kirkby
positive correlation between internality and belief in psi
97 of 169
Pizzagalli et al
right hemisphere over-activation in believers more than non-believers
98 of 169
Wiseman and Watt
right hemisphere activity associated with processing links between distantly related material
99 of 169
Brugger et al
evidence that high levels of dopamine cause paranormal belief - faces experiment, gave L-dopa to non-believer and they gave the same results as believer
100 of 169
Palmer et al
findings of Brugger have not been replicated on dopamine effect
101 of 169
Koenig et al
identical twins more likely to have the same religious views as non-identical
102 of 169
Bouchard et al
found religious belief is related to belief in the paranormal
103 of 169
students reported more negative than positive paranormal experiences
104 of 169
Watt et al
significant association between childhood experiences and the tendancy to hold paranormal beliefs
105 of 169
French and Kerman
children with a history of child abuse - correlation between childhood trauma, fantasy proneness and paranormal belief
106 of 169
Israel attacked by missiles - rise in superstitious belief
107 of 169
Wiseman and Watt
mistaken to see some paranormal beliefs as pathological
108 of 169
function of fundamentalist religion is to bolster deeply insecure and fearful people
109 of 169
religion is response to deep emotional conflicts as they let us feel a sense of control
110 of 169
credulity is adaptive at young age to avoid dangerous situations
111 of 169
Beck and Miller
found no relationship between paranormal beliefs and religiosity
112 of 169
science is like a religion as it's something that people believe in
113 of 169
Science isn't a matter of faith and needs evidence
114 of 169
Bloch and Wilson
argue religion is adaptive as people who are religious have greater self control
115 of 169
religion isn't adaptive but is a by-product of other mental faculties
116 of 169
humans evolved the ability to imagine things that don't physically exist leading to people uniting as groups
117 of 169
religious behaviour evolved as it links humans into successful groups to give a competitive advantage
118 of 169
Wilson and Wilson
showed natural selection happens at all levels of biological hierarchy, adaptive behaviours will be selected
119 of 169
the opium of people - organised religion is a social institution created to maintain a culture
120 of 169
important to distinguish between function of paranormal beliefs for believers and the function for those in power
121 of 169
deception involves manipulative tricks to change how individuals view decievers
122 of 169
identifies the tricks magicians do to mask deception such as emphasising their honesty
123 of 169
argues some deception is harmful as it can lead to losing money, committing suicide etc
124 of 169
superstitions develop through operant conditioning - pigeons
125 of 169
Foster and Kokko
adaptive advantage will persist as long as occasionally correct response has a large adaptive benefit
126 of 169
Beck and Forstmeier
Type 1 errors are tolerated in order to avoid type 2
127 of 169
Staddon and Simmelhag
repeated Skinner's study and observed similar ritual behaviours but these weren't linked with the food reward
128 of 169
confirmed that the superstitious behaviours were due accidental reinforcement
129 of 169
Whitson and Galinsky
people who had a reduced sense of control were more likely to develop superstitions
130 of 169
person consiously believes one thing while unconsciously believing another - capable of self-deception
131 of 169
suggests self-deception co-evolved with deception
132 of 169
suggests self-deception may be a positive aspect of human behaviour as facing the truth may be depressing
133 of 169
Ayeroff and Abelson
believers show greater illusion of control
134 of 169
Kahneman and Tversky
people use various heuristics to solve problems - this could cause probability misjudgement
135 of 169
Whitson & Galinsky
reduced control led Ps to detect patterns where there were none and form correlations between unrelated events
136 of 169
Solfvin et al
psychic healing is a popular treatment and has been taught to 10000 nurses in the US alone
137 of 169
wounded Ps were treated with either therapeutic touch or no treatment - didn't know the condition they were in - Ps with TT healed faster
138 of 169
Wirth et al
failed to replicate his research on wound healing
139 of 169
Solfvin et al
failed to get in contact with Wirth to discuss his research
140 of 169
Cha et al
effect or prayer on infertile women - 2x the women prayed for fell pregnant compared with those that weren't paid for
141 of 169
Lyvers et al
20 Ps suffering back pain - control & treatment group - all Ps told psychic healer focused on them but he only focused on control - no evidence for psychic healing but believers more likely to believe they had healing benefits
142 of 169
Rosa et al
21 TT practitioners - sat on one side of screen with hands through two holes in - experiment place hand 4 inches above either hand - only correct 44% of the time (less than chance)
143 of 169
the experiment by Rosa was invalid because the psychologist wasn't ill and this would have effected their aura
144 of 169
Glickman and Gracely
designed a study which eliminated body heat and the results were at chance level - Rosa study format
145 of 169
Keen et al
results of 500 experiments - objects materialised and flew about room, voices - proffesional magician couldn't find evidence of fraud
146 of 169
Schwartz et al
five mediums - two women were sitters - mediums couldn't see sitter and sitter could only answer yes or no - women judged accuracy at 83% and 77%. College judges accuracy at 36%
147 of 169
Wiseman and O'Keefe
Cold reader starts with some general statements (barnum) and the responses can be used later to convince listeners of psychic's abilities
148 of 169
Wiseman et al
mock seance - Ps knew it was fake, believrs still taken in by events
149 of 169
O'Keeffe and Wiseman
5 mediums give reading to 5 sitters - each sitter read 25 readings & rated personal relevance - rating lowest on the ones written for them
150 of 169
reports many sitters are aware of barnum statement but still remain convinced
151 of 169
studied 400 accounts of OBEs - developed classification on different types of OBE. 20% of accounts person experiences another body.
152 of 169
Holden et al
some research is conducted on artificially-induced OBEs and some researchers don't regard these as equivalent to natural OBEs
153 of 169
reviewed lab studies with induced OBEs
154 of 169
Ps asked to identify objects out of site of physical body. 1 person could recall a five digit number in another room
155 of 169
no discernible difference in physiological ativity that accompanies OBEs
156 of 169
Blanke et al
induce OBEs accidentally by stimulating temporal-parietal junction in women who suffered epilepsy. Did this on normal subjects same results
157 of 169
Ketamin can produce classic symptoms of NDEs
158 of 169
Lommell et al
344 cardiac survivors over 8 years, those who had an NDE regarded it as life-changing
159 of 169
endorphins released at the time of pain or stress lead to feeling of euphoria and detachment
160 of 169
Proposed hypothetico-deductive model - suggests theories/laws about world should come first and these should be used to form falsifiable hypothesis'
161 of 169
Says psychologists who attempt to be scientists are doing no more than dressing up
162 of 169
Claimed psychology can't be a science as there isn't a single shared set of assumptions
163 of 169
argued it's not possible to measure a subatomic particle without altering its behaviour in doing the measurement
164 of 169
peer review is slow, expensive, profligate of academic time, highly subjective, prone to bias, easily abused, poor at detecting gross defect and fraud
165 of 169
believed peer review only discovered the acceptibility and not the validity of a new finding
166 of 169
discrimination on the basis of species is no different to racial or gender discrimination
167 of 169
claims there are no circumstances under which animal research is acceptable
168 of 169
Russel and Birch
the 3 Rs on animal research - reduction, replacement and refinement
169 of 169

Other cards in this set

Card 2


pseudopatients - all but one admitted to hospital. 2nd time warned hospitals - 21% detection rate - none sent.



Card 3


Once labelled people fulfill that label, and those around them do the same


Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4


2.1% African-Americans diagnosed, only 1.4% White Americans


Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5


mental hospitals in Birmingham - 1/3 white or asian, 2/3 African-Caribbean


Preview of the back of card 5
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